The aims of the present study were to compare the experimental method with the preparatory research method, in the study of such situations as bringing shame, and to make clear the sigrificances of the two method in the research of the problem of emotion. (1) In a situation that “a pupil listens to his own voice recorded facing his friends for the firsttime,” about half of all pupils in the second year of primary school showed emotion of shame, and the percentage increased by year. Number of thosewho showed “γ” behaviorsuch as looking down, lying on face on the desk or covering face with hand), that is considered as a physical reaction of shame, increased “markedly” with the advance of year. Some other behavior patterns which were seen similarly in the lower grades increased with the advance of year, and the features of behavior become clear. (2) If we look upon “γ” behavior as a physical reaction to shame, we can say that it is not until about the second year of middle school that “γ” behavior accords with the real experience of shame; girls are quickei than boys in such an accordance of reaction and real experience. (3) Investigation of the same experimental situations by means of “constitutiontest,” and the comparison of the results of the two experiments on “γ” behavior and the rate of these accordance showed that the reaction-percentage resulted from the former research was much lower than that of the experimental test. Judging from these facts, we find that the results of the research on emotion show only a general tendency of reaction in the group and that they have no significance as to the real aspects that bring emotion. As emotion is a complex process of dynamics based on mental set, attitude and objective situation, an experimental method may play an important part in the solution of these problems.
Although there are special areas within the whole domain of psychology that are commonly disignated as “social”, there is no real point of transition between the social and non-social. At the most simple level, psychology deals with only rather static, immobile objects; at the complex level mobile, powerful, capricious, and causal objects. Thus, it is our methodological conviction that attitudes in strict laboratory situations and attitudes in the most complicated social situations have, essentially, the same psychological mechanism, and that the basic psychological substrate functioning in both instances are the same in nature. From this point of view, the author studied the polarity of attitude as one of the unitary norm to construct the psychology of attitude. The fact that in certain situation an attitude does involve tension and that the object of an attitude is frequently perceived as demanding action on the part of the individual differentiates attitudes from beliefs in a very important way. It is for this reason that attitude can be designated as either “pro” or “anti” while beliefs are conceived of as neutral. Generally, there are two aspects in the judgement of scale value of social attitude. In one (S) the scale values are judged in terms of agreement with the statements of attitude, and in the other (S') they are judged in terms of opposition to the statements. When examined statistically, S-S' has a significant difference. Such significant differences, existing not only in the complicated social situations but also in strict laboratory situations, further psychological investigations and interpretations. The author tried factor analysis of the discriminative threshold in perceptual judgement and found a general factor of attitude in perceptual judgement.