I. Problem Wickman's study of the teachers' attitudes toward behavior problems of children, published in 1928, has been quoted ever since as the evidence that teachers are unable to recognize those problems so serious as mental hygienists. We also found that teachers were likely to make light of regressive behavior problems on the part of their pupils in Japan.(Report No.I) But we have doubts about the judgement that teacher's attitudes are naive, because it depinds on the results obtained after comparing rating by teachers with those by clinicians. We must look straight at teachers' situation different from clinicians' situation. Therefore, we have the following two problems. 1) How accurate are teachers in observing the social structure of their classes? On this problem, the teachers who often recognizd children's serious regressive behavior problems observed more accurately than those who were usually concerned about aggressive behavior problems.(Report No.II) 2) How desirable are pupils' attitudes toward their teachers proved by T. P. T.(Takeuchi's Personality Test)? The general consideration of the results could not explain a significant difference between the two groups of teachers.(Report No.III) Consequently, purpose of this study is to examine the second problem in detail. II. Procedure Teachers (7) who oftener recognize as children's serious aggressive behavior problems (A-Group) and those (6) who more often observe children's regressive behavior problems (R-Group) were chosen from the primary schools in Shimane Prefecture. And T. P. T. was given to the the children (513) in their classes. The study was made December, 1955-January, 1956. III. Sumary of Results The main results gained after comparing the two groups (A-group, R-Group) are as follows: 1. By comparing interaction indexes of sociometric test, we could discern significant difference between the social climates of two groups. The classes of R-Group were friendlier or more cooperative than those of A-Group.(Table 1) In spite of our anticipation that the teachers' attitudes would influence the pupils' attitudes, we could hardly notice a difference in average scores of T. P. T. between the two groups.(Table 2) 2. Through analysis of T. P. T. scores of each pupil, from a viewpoint of degree intimacy or escape, we found that the children of R-Group had more desirable human relations to their teachers than those of A-Group.(Table 4) 3. The teacher-pupils sociograms of three classes (R. I. class, N. Y. class, S. M. class), the conditions of which are fairly the same, explain the difference more clearly between A-Group and R-Group. In R. I. class, there are a popular child and many isolated pupils who desire to escape from their teacher.(Fig. 1) But we can't find this tendency in two classes of R-Group.(Fig. 2, 3) 4. The social structure of R. I. class is lacking stability, for it is unorganized around the teacher. Two months latter, as was expected, we received the report from R. I. teacher, in which we found that the social tension in the class had erupted at last. 5. Consequently, need to be recognized by teachers that regressive behavior problems of pupils is as important and would be as serious as aggressive behavior problems. Because this attitude constitutes more desirable human relation between a teacher and children in their class.
The teachers for the deaf have long been troubled with the problem how to measure the intelligence of the deaf children. It provides a special difficulty to measure the intelligence of such children, especially at the beginning of their school experience. Although many tests of intelligence have been standardized on hearing children, only a very few have been tried to apply to the deaf. Even in such cases, the norms for the hearing children have been uncritically used, which fact affords a serious disadvantage to the deaf. The difficulty in testing the deaf consists in the pantomimed instruction, which requires the teachers to expend a great deal of time and energy in the test situation. Fortunately there is a test especially designed to solve this difficulty. That is the Nebraska test of learning aptitude. The test has given the writer a great deal of suggestion. The writer here presents a new individual test for the deaf. It consists of the following subtests. 1). Memory of coloured objects. 2). Bead string 3). Pictorial association 4). Pictorial analogy 5). Memory of digits 6). Recognition of figures 7). Cube construction 8). Cube puzzle 9). Paper folding 10). Completion of pictures.
1. Problem: Berg & Rapaport studied response bias in an unstructured test situation, and found in such a situation the response bias appeared at a high level of statistical significance, and occurred at culturally valued options, and that different cultures would presumably cause different patterns of response bias. I have attempted to study to what extent such response bias appears in the same situation, and to reexamine their results of the study. 2. Subjects and Procedure: Subjects were 830 students in the first and second year of the Faculty of Education of the Kumamoto University and the Kumamoto Women's University (465 males, 365 females). Each one was requested to choose and mark, on the distributed sheet of paper, a statement that seemed to be correct for a question among various statements orally given. Then questions had alternative answers for each, other ten had four-optionchoices for each, and another ten three-option choices. This test was administered two times with interval of five months, and each time it was held in both regular and inverted orders of options. 3. Results: This study reveales that response bias appeared, in such an unstructured test situation as Berg & Rapaport studied, at a covincingly high level of statistical significance, reaching chi-square values above 200 in some cases. Although no occurence was observed at certain positions of options, the response bias appeared exceedingly at culturally high valued options and at the options that would meet the organic and physiological fundamental needs of human beings. As for the cultural factors, it seems that other cultures to some extent, would show different types of response bias. And it could be stated that those who respond always abnormally in such a situation would be deviate in their personality from a group of normal subjects.