教育心理学研究
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5 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
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  • 小林 さえ子, 斎藤 美智子
    5 巻 (1957 - 1958) 4 号 p. 1-5,59
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    ぬり絵の共同作業を課した, 幼児の実験的集団にみられたリーダーシップ機能の発達について, つぎのような諸事象が明らかになつた。(i) 集団の発達の水準は, リーダーシップ機能の発
    達をもつてはかることができる。それは集団活動におけるエネルギーの節約と, よりよき集団目標達成のために, 集団におこるはたらきだからである。本実験によればリーダーシップ機能は, L・F型言動の出現-特定リーダー発生 (成層化) という段階をたどつて発達する。
    (ii) 上にのべた事実を規定する要因の一として, 課題の要因があげられる。「四等分図形」の構造は, L・F型言動の生起および, リーダー発生を抑制するはたらきをもつ。一方, 「統一図形」はその両者を促進させる力をもつ。「統一図形」は社会的言動一般を「四等分図形」より多くひき起す。
    (iii) リーダーシップ機能の発達は, 集団成員の年令的要因に関係をもつ。普通程度の知能をもつ4.0~4.5才児の集団では, 集団機能発達の水準はきわめて低いが, その水準は生活年令とともに高まつていく。
    (iv) 集団機能発達の水準は, 生活年令に関係がある。しかし等しい生活年令であつても, I. Q. の要因によつてそれぞれ異なる。本実験においては, I. Q. 100~110集団とI. Q. 110~120集団の間に, L・F型行動の生起とリーダー発生の時期において, それぞれ6ヵ月の差があり, 後者の方が早期に出現した。つまり, I. Q. 条件や課題事態の条件をのぞいて, 生活年令だけで, 幼児の集団化発達を論ずることはできないのである。
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  • 米山 久恵
    5 巻 (1957 - 1958) 4 号 p. 6-13,59
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is primarily to observe the aggressive behaviors of children, secondly to analyse the various factors resulting it and to determine the relationship between these factors aad the behaviors, and thirdly to take clinical considerations into each case. The subjects were sixty two 60 Jap. J. of Educ. Psychol. vol.V, No.4 (1958) boys and girls in a kindergarten and twenty three infants in two day-nurseries.
    Their aggressive behaviors were recorded one hour each day for six days by means of the checklist method. Then they were divided into two groups: the aggressive and the non-aggressive.
    Most of the patterns expressed in their aggressive behaviors were direct and primitive, such as hitting, snatching away, abusing and so on.
    With these two groups, the aggressive and the non-aggressive, the correlation with factors; physical, physiological, psychological and social, were statistically examined.
    There were no significant relations between the physical factors, which were weather and temperature, and aggressiveness.
    Of the physiological factor, the physical conditions of the subjects had no evident correlations with aggression, but the bodily strength had certain relationships, that is, while the stronger-bodied children were apt to respond with the aggressive behaviors, the weaker were all non-aggressive.
    In respect of the psychological factors, the study was made from two angles, which were intelligence and personality. Intelligence proved to have no direct relation with aggressiveness. Personality of the subjects were examined according to the criteria for intro-and-extro-versive traits and emotional stability. In the aggressive group most of appeared as extroversive type and almost all non-aggressive children were judged to be either neutral or introversive. Furthermore, it was found that aggressive infants were not always emotionally instable.
    As for the social factors, home environment of the children was investigated in terms of home discipline, family constitution, economical conditions, family occupation and house surroundings, and environment of the institutions were also evaluated in terms of nursing principles, educational attitudes, and situations in which the aggressive behaviors occurred. The home discipline was found giving the strongest direct influence on aggressive behaviors of the children.
    In the kindergarten most of the homes belonged economically to the middle class with better environment, and educational levels of the parents were relatively high. The aggressive group consisted of those from over-indulgent or over-interfering types in home discipline, and the non-aggressive group came from homes with “let-alone” type, rational type and strict type of home discipline.
    On the contrary, most children in the day nurseries came from economically poor homes in which parent's level of education was low and little time was spent to take care of their children. The aggressive group consisted dominantly of those from “letalone” type or strict type of homes, and the nonaggressive children were found among those from over-indulgent type or over-interfering type of homes.
    These one may suggest through these inconsistent phenomena that home discipline should be selected to adapt to the social situation and according to children's personality, and that under a certain condition the educational principle not to suppres infants desire may cause them to develop poor frustration-tolerance.
    Among the four factors described above, the most significant was social factor. It is consequently suggested that by controlling the factor the maladjusted behaviors of infants could be improved.
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  • 津守 真, 稲毛 教子
    5 巻 (1957 - 1958) 4 号 p. 14-24,61
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    1乳児期の母親の育児態度と乳児の精神発達との関係をみ, あわせて乳児期の親の態度に関係ある諸要因を検討することを目的とし, 2, 6, 9, 12ケ月の乳児120名について面接質問を主とする研究を行なった。
    2親の育児態度を調べる方法として, 1) 面接質問により, 泣いたときの扱い方など約10項目の育児場面におけるやり方を尋ねる。(2) 面接中の母子の様子を観察した。それらの結果を評価して, 接触多く寛容な育児態度と接触少なく厳格な育児態度とにわけた。また育児意見についても検討した。
    3乳児の精神発達を調べる方法として, 家庭における日常生活場面の発達項目より成る発達質問紙を主として用い, 乳幼児精神発達検査を併用した。
    4育児態度と発達との関係は,(1) 2ケ月児では運動と社会的発達について, 接触の多い育児態度の場合, 発達がすぐれている傾向があるが, 全体としてみると, その関係は明瞭でない。(2) 6ケ月児では, 社会的及び食事行動の発達について, 接触の多い育児態度の方が発達がすぐれており, 運動・手の操作・発達全体についても同様の傾向が認められる。(3) 9ケ月児では探索行動と杜会的発達について, 接触多く寛容な育児態度の方が発達がすぐれており, 発達全体及び子どもの反応についても同様の傾向が認められる。(4) 12ケ月児では, 探索行動と子どもの反応について接触多く寛容な育児態度の方が発達がすぐれている傾向が認められるが, 全体としては育児態度と発達との関係は認められない。
    5育児態度と関係ある諸要因について,(1) 育児態度と社会一経済状態との関係は, 生後半年以前のものについて, 社会一経済状態上のものに接触の少ない育児態度の多い傾向がみられるが, 全体としてみると, 育児態度と社会一経済状態との間には明瞭な関係は認められなかった。(2) 育児意見と社会経済状態の関係は社会一経済状態上のものに寛容な育児意見が多く, 社会一経済状態下のものに厳格な育児意見が多い。また社会一経済状態上のものに溺愛的でない意見が多い。(3) 育児態度と育児意見との間には明瞭な関係は認められない。(4) 育児態度と出生順位との関係は, 第1子に接触多く寛容な育児態度の多い傾向があるが明確ではない。(5) 出生順位と育児意見との関係は, 第1子に寛容・溺愛の意見が多く, 第2子に厳格で溺愛でない意見が多い傾向がある。(6) 育児態度は, 乳児期には年令の増加とともに寛容の方向にむかう傾向がある。(7) 育児意見と年令との間には明瞭な関係は認められない。(8) 育児意見と発達との関係は, 明瞭な傾向を認めることはできなかった。6子どもとの接触が多く, 寛容な育児態度の方が, 子どもの精神発達がすぐれる傾向があることを結論することができる。
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  • 北野 栄正
    5 巻 (1957 - 1958) 4 号 p. 25-31,62
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    学級編成による児童の交友関係の特質および学級編成による分団学習への効果を調査した。調査対象として, 普通学校2校, 複式学校2校, それぞれ小学校3年から6年までの児童にSociometric Testを施行し, 各学級内の交友関係を調査した。分団学習は各学級における教室での座席順に構成された5人ずつの分団成員およびSociometric Testによる集団成員の凝集性をもとにした5人ずつの分団成員, 以上2つの分団成員によって分団学習をなし, それぞれ学習所要時間を測定した。以上によって得られた結果を概括すると次のごとくまとめられる。
    (1) 各学級共学年の進むにつれて積極的選択が増加しているが, 複式学級よりも普通学級, しかも児童数の多い普通学級程積極的選択が増加している。また, 児童数の多い普通学級程同性積極的選択が多く, 児童数の少い複式学級程異性積極的選択が多い。普通学級においては2人の相互積極的選択が圧倒的に多いが, 児童数の少い複式学級程2人の相互積極的選択のみならず, 3人, 4人の相互積極的選択もかなり見受けられる。
    (2) 児童数の多い普通学級程拒否的選択が多い。一般に拒否的選択は低学年児童程多く, 学年の進むにつれて減少する傾向にあるが, 児童数の最も少い複式学級においては学年を通じて余り差異がみられない。同性拒否選択は児童数の多い普通学級程多い。異性拒否選択は普通学級では4年までであるが, 複式学級では全学年にみられる。相互拒否選択は児童数の多い普通学級程多く, 児童数の最も少い複式学級では非常に少い。
    (3) 児童数の多い普通学級程無関心の数が多く, しかも同性無関心, 異性無関心共に多い。児童数の最も少い複式学級では4年以上に異性無関心はみられない。相互無関心も児童数の多い普通学級程多い。
    (4) 分団学習の所要時間は複式学級よりも普通学級, しかも児童数の多い普通学級程速い。各学級共分団成員の凝集性による分団学習の所要時間が速くなっているが, 児童の座席順による分団成員と凝集性による分団成員との分団学習所要時間のずれは複式学級よりも普通学級, かも児童数の多い普通学級程大きい。
    集団成員の凝集性をもとにして分団を構成すれば, 児童数の少い複式学級よりも児童数の多い普通学級の分団成員による協同性が強くなるものと思われる。従って分団成員の凝集性による分団学習への効果は児童数の多い学級程大きく, 児童数の少い複式学級で}ま甑学級程現われないものと思われる。
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  • 寺岡 隆
    5 巻 (1957 - 1958) 4 号 p. 32-39,63
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study was primarily designed to investigate on “the standard score of sociality” devised as a sociometric index based upon the distribution of sociality. Secondly, to find out the relationships among the school records, intelligence and sociality indicated by this index.
    1. The standard score of sociality (S. S. S.):
    The scores of usual indices generally indicate only the relative heights of sociality. A index indicated by the standard score was devised, as it is convenient in practical use for the score of index to be ranked on the standardized scale.
    An, individual sociality was defined as a social status determined by choice-rejection responses from members of class. Accordingly, subjects were instructed to check responses for all. members (n) one another on the 5-grades scale under a certain criterion. It was all but conformed to the usual indices.
    It is assumed that the scores on a valuation scale, being the basis of personel feeling, is normally distributed: each grade (i), in case of arrangement, is represented by z score transformed from summations of checked frequency (f) at the grade. An individual score is generally indicated as follows:_??_Assuming the sociality is normally distributed, X is replaced with S. S. S. indicated by Z score, So,_??_
    The normality was confirmed by x2 test in 209 pupils of a secondary school. The reliability coefficient, by the re-test method, was 0.97 while it was 0.90 in case of the split half one.
    2. The relations among school records, intelligence and sociality:
    Subjects were the pupils described in 1. At first, the correlation and partial correlation coefficients among the school records (1), intelligence (2) and sociality (3), were calculated. Also each score of the former two elements was indicated by the standard score.
    Results are shown as follows: Correlations: γ12=0.62. γ13=0.60, γ33=0.41 partial correlations: γ12.3=0.51, γ13.2=0.48, γ23.1=0.07 They are all significat at 1% level except γ23.1.
    These results suggest that the correlation between the sociality and school records is relatively high and, moreover, that the former is naturally independent of the intelligence. In other words, the sociality relates to the factors of being the over- or underachiever. Over- and under-achievers were, therefore, selected out under a criterion. In regards to both groups, the mentioned deduction was confirmed at 1 % level of significance.
    Secondly, to investigate the developmental transition, 4 groups, selected out of primary, secondary and high schools, were examined with the same procedure. The same tendency was found also in all groups but a group of high schools.
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  • 大野 桂
    5 巻 (1957 - 1958) 4 号 p. 40-49,64
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Purpose:
    The present study aims, from the standpoint of clinical psychology, that conditions and causes of specific under achievers in the higher class of elementary school are to be diagnosed and that the solution of the problem is to be solved.
    2. Difinition of the under achievers and the subjects:
    The under achievers studied are defined as those who have shown low school achievement although they seem to have latently capacity to be average or the above. In this study, achievement on so-called intellectual course of study, such as mathematics, social studies, language and science were selected to compare them with children's intelligence.
    3. Methods and procedure:
    The group intelligence tests and the achievement tests of four courses were given to all the children. The observations and evaluation of the children in their class room by their teachers were added to rate them. Four children who grades of the studies were of-1 or-2, although intelligence was rated within-1 or +1, were finally selected. They were then intelligence tests and the several kinds of assessment were done. Following psychological and medical diagnosis were made, treatment had practised.
    4. Results:
    The present reveals that the difference of grades between pre- and affer-treatment is about 1 point all courses exception of social studies, that is in 3 courses grades ascend from-1 to O. This suggests that there is considerable effect of the present treatment on school achievement as well as on the improvement of atttitude and mode of studies in the children. In addition, it is reported by their teacher and guardian they seem to become more positive and independent than before.
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  • 三隅 二不二
    5 巻 (1957 - 1958) 4 号 p. 50-57
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 5 巻 (1957 - 1958) 4 号 p. 59
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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