The purpose of this study is primarily to observe the aggressive behaviors of children, secondly to analyse the various factors resulting it and to determine the relationship between these factors aad the behaviors, and thirdly to take clinical considerations into each case. The subjects were sixty two 60 Jap. J. of Educ. Psychol. vol.V, No.4 (1958) boys and girls in a kindergarten and twenty three infants in two day-nurseries. Their aggressive behaviors were recorded one hour each day for six days by means of the checklist method. Then they were divided into two groups: the aggressive and the non-aggressive. Most of the patterns expressed in their aggressive behaviors were direct and primitive, such as hitting, snatching away, abusing and so on. With these two groups, the aggressive and the non-aggressive, the correlation with factors; physical, physiological, psychological and social, were statistically examined. There were no significant relations between the physical factors, which were weather and temperature, and aggressiveness. Of the physiological factor, the physical conditions of the subjects had no evident correlations with aggression, but the bodily strength had certain relationships, that is, while the stronger-bodied children were apt to respond with the aggressive behaviors, the weaker were all non-aggressive. In respect of the psychological factors, the study was made from two angles, which were intelligence and personality. Intelligence proved to have no direct relation with aggressiveness. Personality of the subjects were examined according to the criteria for intro-and-extro-versive traits and emotional stability. In the aggressive group most of appeared as extroversive type and almost all non-aggressive children were judged to be either neutral or introversive. Furthermore, it was found that aggressive infants were not always emotionally instable. As for the social factors, home environment of the children was investigated in terms of home discipline, family constitution, economical conditions, family occupation and house surroundings, and environment of the institutions were also evaluated in terms of nursing principles, educational attitudes, and situations in which the aggressive behaviors occurred. The home discipline was found giving the strongest direct influence on aggressive behaviors of the children. In the kindergarten most of the homes belonged economically to the middle class with better environment, and educational levels of the parents were relatively high. The aggressive group consisted of those from over-indulgent or over-interfering types in home discipline, and the non-aggressive group came from homes with “let-alone” type, rational type and strict type of home discipline. On the contrary, most children in the day nurseries came from economically poor homes in which parent's level of education was low and little time was spent to take care of their children. The aggressive group consisted dominantly of those from “letalone” type or strict type of homes, and the nonaggressive children were found among those from over-indulgent type or over-interfering type of homes. These one may suggest through these inconsistent phenomena that home discipline should be selected to adapt to the social situation and according to children's personality, and that under a certain condition the educational principle not to suppres infants desire may cause them to develop poor frustration-tolerance. Among the four factors described above, the most significant was social factor. It is consequently suggested that by controlling the factor the maladjusted behaviors of infants could be improved.
The present study was primarily designed to investigate on “the standard score of sociality” devised as a sociometric index based upon the distribution of sociality. Secondly, to find out the relationships among the school records, intelligence and sociality indicated by this index. 1. The standard score of sociality (S. S. S.): The scores of usual indices generally indicate only the relative heights of sociality. A index indicated by the standard score was devised, as it is convenient in practical use for the score of index to be ranked on the standardized scale. An, individual sociality was defined as a social status determined by choice-rejection responses from members of class. Accordingly, subjects were instructed to check responses for all. members (n) one another on the 5-grades scale under a certain criterion. It was all but conformed to the usual indices. It is assumed that the scores on a valuation scale, being the basis of personel feeling, is normally distributed: each grade (i), in case of arrangement, is represented by z score transformed from summations of checked frequency (f) at the grade. An individual score is generally indicated as follows:_??_Assuming the sociality is normally distributed, X is replaced with S. S. S. indicated by Z score, So,_??_ The normality was confirmed by x2 test in 209 pupils of a secondary school. The reliability coefficient, by the re-test method, was 0.97 while it was 0.90 in case of the split half one. 2. The relations among school records, intelligence and sociality: Subjects were the pupils described in 1. At first, the correlation and partial correlation coefficients among the school records (1), intelligence (2) and sociality (3), were calculated. Also each score of the former two elements was indicated by the standard score. Results are shown as follows: Correlations: γ12=0.62. γ13=0.60, γ33=0.41 partial correlations: γ12.3=0.51, γ13.2=0.48, γ23.1=0.07 They are all significat at 1% level except γ23.1. These results suggest that the correlation between the sociality and school records is relatively high and, moreover, that the former is naturally independent of the intelligence. In other words, the sociality relates to the factors of being the over- or underachiever. Over- and under-achievers were, therefore, selected out under a criterion. In regards to both groups, the mentioned deduction was confirmed at 1 % level of significance. Secondly, to investigate the developmental transition, 4 groups, selected out of primary, secondary and high schools, were examined with the same procedure. The same tendency was found also in all groups but a group of high schools.
1. Purpose: The present study aims, from the standpoint of clinical psychology, that conditions and causes of specific under achievers in the higher class of elementary school are to be diagnosed and that the solution of the problem is to be solved. 2. Difinition of the under achievers and the subjects: The under achievers studied are defined as those who have shown low school achievement although they seem to have latently capacity to be average or the above. In this study, achievement on so-called intellectual course of study, such as mathematics, social studies, language and science were selected to compare them with children's intelligence. 3. Methods and procedure: The group intelligence tests and the achievement tests of four courses were given to all the children. The observations and evaluation of the children in their class room by their teachers were added to rate them. Four children who grades of the studies were of-1 or-2, although intelligence was rated within-1 or +1, were finally selected. They were then intelligence tests and the several kinds of assessment were done. Following psychological and medical diagnosis were made, treatment had practised. 4. Results: The present reveals that the difference of grades between pre- and affer-treatment is about 1 point all courses exception of social studies, that is in 3 courses grades ascend from-1 to O. This suggests that there is considerable effect of the present treatment on school achievement as well as on the improvement of atttitude and mode of studies in the children. In addition, it is reported by their teacher and guardian they seem to become more positive and independent than before.