Atomic and Hydrogen bombs are being tested in the Pacific Ocean, and part of the radioactive fallout from the experiments in Bikini atoll came down upon the Daigo Fukuryu Maru, a fishing boat of Yaizu City, and caused the death of Captain Aikichi Kuboyama, which was sensationally reported by newspaers and other means of mass communication. People were astounded at the danger of radioactivity, and have come to express unusual attention to the event. The author's intention in the present paper is to compare the interest taken by, and the influences produced on the youth living in Yaizu City of Shizuoka prefecture who were directly and strongly affected by the event, and those of the youth living in other parts of the prefecture, whose knowledge about the event is rather indirect, though much closer than that of those living in other districts of Japan. The method taken by the author isthat of questionnaire, which was carried out by home-room teachers of various grades of schools. In order to make the conditions even, the author asked the teachers to give their students only one set of examples and not to give any other misleading directions. The examinees were students from the second to the ninth grades. The number of questions was twelves, and the answers were anonymously submitted. The investigation has revealed that the Atomic and Hydrogen bomb experiments are giving young people terrors and uneasiness, their conception and understanding about the experiments are considerably nigh, and that they are greatly interested in the event. The make-up of their attitudes is mostly due to gossips of the grown-up and to mass communication media. It has been also found that those living in Yaizu feel the matter closer to themselves than those living in other parts, that the higher their academic grades are, the more profound their conception appears, and that boys are more interested than girls. Very few agree with this kind of experiments, and most of the subjects believe that the tests should be forbidden, or expelled for the permanent peace of the world and the everlasting welfare of the human race. The author believes that it is of great interest and of worth to give the same type of inquiries to the youth of those countries which have made these dengerous experiments and those of other countries, and to compare the result with that presently attained.
1. Purpose: This study attempts to investigate the process of personality development of th rural pupils in their particular environment, primarily based upon the results obtained by the Picture Frustration Test and some other supplementary procedure. 2. Methods and Procedure: Subjects are the fourth-grade pupils in the compound classes in the culturally and geographically isolated area. Their personality traits are described mostly based upon the analytical study of their responses to P. F. T., and the fundamental characteristics of major aspects of personality are explained and discussed to the extent that this study has assured, referring to the data obtained from other devices such as C. A. T., educational environment questionaires sociometric test, and an B-type intelligence test. 3. Results and Discussions: a) Intellectual aspect. The mean of IQ is not so low in general, but the number of the superior is rather small comparing with the inferior. They show the immaturity in the sentence expression and the ability to transfer. General achievements are also low. b) Emotional aspect. In general emotions are simple, needs not differentiated, and they show the stability as a such of the primary group. c) Social aspects. They appear to be immature in sociability. Living in the limited social life, they are dull in competition, lacking of independence, deficient in energy. d) Behavioral aspect. They tend to submit easily to authority without conceiving it as the power possiblly acts upon them. This may be due to the potential resignation caused by their less awareness of complex needs and pressures.
Some Rorschach workers have hypothesized positive correlation between the number of various movement responses on the Rorschach and intelligence, but their validity has not been firmly established. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlations between some scores as given in The Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and various movement responses on the Rorschach (human movement, animal movement and inanimate movement). I. Method: The subjects of this investigation included one hundred male juvenile dilinquents detained at the Kanazawa Juvenile Classification Center. The mean age of the subjects was18: 2. All 100 subjects were administered the Rorschach and the Wechsler-Bellevue tests. The Rorschach were scored by Klopfer system, but M and FM were sub-classified as follows: Human movement Mn...Human beings seen in action Mp...Human beings seen in any animate posture Ma...Human-like movement in animals Mo...Human movement not included in the above three types Animal movement FMa...Animals in movement of an animal-like nature FMp...Animals in animate posture FMo...Animal movement not included in the above two types II. Results: Means and standard deviations of the Rorschach variables and the Wechsler-Bellevue scale scores are presented in Table 1. The Pearson coefficients between the Rorschach variables and the Wechsler Bellevue scores are given in Table 2. 1. Human movement It is seen that human movement (M) correlate with each IQ on the Wechsler-Bellevue Verbal, Performance and Full Scales at the. 02 level of significance or the above. M correlates. 275 with W-B Full Scale IQ, and the eta is. 362, which indicates statistically no significant difference. Therefore, the regression of M on intelligence is not significantly curviliniar for this group. An examination of the sub-test correlations reveals that M correlates-highest with Similarities (. 376), but insignificantly with Object Assembly (. 082). In Table 3 there are given the bi-serial correlations between three types of M and IQ. Ma shows the highest correlation with the Full Scale IQ (. 471), but Mp and Ma correlate insignificantly with the Full Scale IQ (. 073,. 286). Popular M unelaborated on Card III yields an rbis of. 463 with Full Scale IQ. This coefficient is significantly greater than zero at the. 01 level of confidence. 2. Animal movement Animal movement (FM), on the other hand, shows nocorrelation with W-B IQ as presented in Table 2. FMa and FMp, similarly, correlate insignificantly with the W-B Full Scale IQ, but FMp shows a rather negative correlation with the Performance Scale IQ at the5% level, which was not expected. 3. Inanimate movement Inanimate movement (m) appears in 18 cases of this group. But only 3 cases of 18 subjects is above 110 on Full Scale IQ. The bi-serial coefficient of in: Full Scale IQ is. 092, yet rbta of m: Performance Scale IQ is. 400. The latter coefficient is significantly greater than zero at the 1% level of confidence.
Many of the Rorschach studies of children aim to count the frequencies of the Rorschach variables, and lack the longitudinal investigation of them. Besides, there are few reports on the effectiveness, validity and reliability of the test. The purpose of the present study is to throw light upon these points which has been neglected. The subjects used in the cross-sectional data were 240 children, from 4 to 6 years old, in two private kindergarten and four public nurseries. They were divided into six groups, each of them consisted of 40 children with comparable age and sex. The results of the present study are summarized as follows:- (1) The cross-sectional data of the test are obtained from 240 children. The number of responses in this study were fewer than the prior studies, but nearly the same number as those of Ames. The increasing FC with age, and more C in lower age were two of the characteristic findings of this study. (2) In order to check the cross-sectional data, the longitudinal approach was taken to retest 13 children of 4 years old, selected from the sample two years later. The full agreement between two data was found, validating the cross-sectional data. The tendencies of the increasing FC with age and more C in lower age were proved again. (3) To examine the effectiveness, the criterion of Klopfer and Margulies was used.“A” pattern, according to the classification made by them, could not be found, but more “B” pattern. This revealed that there are many children who showed the crude relation. (4) In general, the children who rejected all ten cards were characterized by low intelligence. This kind of subjects in 6 years-of-age group were in the grade of the feebleminded. And the intelligence level of the children who rejected one or more cards was found to be much lower than that of the children who didn't. (5) The validity was examined from three aspects, i. e., sex difference, intelligence and the rating made by nurses. As to sex differencies of each variable, boys tended to give more W responses than girls, and the older they were, the more M responses were given. On the contrary, girls tended to give color responses more than boys. There was an agreement between this tendencies and the previous findings. The correlation between intelligence, in terms of L. Q. and M. A., and the each variable of the Rorschach was calculated. Generally the M responses gave the highest correlation and A% gave a negative correlation. Ten Subjects were rated individually at 3 nurses' conference with respect to their “behavioral maturity”,“agreeableness in human relation”, and “introversiveness”. These ratings were correlated with the ratings based upon their Rorschach protocols by means of Kendall's tau. The appreciable agreement was given only by 6 years children. (6) The test-retest reliabilities of the Rorschach determinants were calculated. The reliabilities of six month interval ranged from. 25 to 83, all of them are above the 5% level of confidence except W% The reliabilities beyond two year interval ranged from. 01 to. 52 and R, M, D and A are above 5% level of significance. The results reported above verified longitudinal regularity and desirable reliability of the Rorschach responses. However, further examinations in the validity and effectiveness of the test are to be needed for subjects who are five or less years of age.
The present study was designed to, determine how the magnitude of differences between the recall scores of intentional and incidental learners might be influenced by variations in the rate and number of presentation of stimulus materials. The stimulus list consisted of 12 nonsense syllables which had 30-34 non-association value by Umemoto and his co-worker's norms. The Ss were 120 college students randomly divided into two groups (intentional and incidental) of 60 each. Each group was further divided into three subgroups of 20 Ss each. In each learning group, the list was presented only once at a rate of one item every 4 sec. to one Subgroup, and 12 sec. to another. And to the third subgroup, the list was presented three times, with a 10-sec. interval between successive presentations, at a rate of one item every 4 sec. An electrically operated memory drum was used to present the list. The Ss of the incidental learning group, as soon as a stimulus item appeared, were asked to record that item in any of the four, blanks on a sheet of paper on hand. This ‘orienting’ task was given as a kind of personality-test. Immediately after the presentation of the list, the Ss were requested to write down as many syllables as they could recall in accordance with the original order of presentation of the items. The Ss of the intentional learning group, on the other hand were asked tc, perform the same task with the Ss of the incidental learning group, and were also instructed to memorize as many syllables as possible in the serial order of items. The method of the recall test for this group was identical with that for the incidental learning group. As the results, it was known that the differences between the recall scores of stimulus items of intentional and incidental learners depend on the rate and number of stimulus presentations: when the list was presented only once at rate of one item every 4 sec., no difference between the scores was found. In the case of slow rate or many presentations, however, the scores of intentional learning was reliably higher than those of incidental learning, as a result of the improvement in the scores of the former in spite of no improvement in the scores of the latter. The improvement in the scores of intentional learners on the present occation is mostly attributed to the increase of rehearsing-effect of stimulus materials. This result confirms the findings by Saltzman and co-worker's experiments in which the recognition- test was used, and suggests obviously that it does not necessarily make learning beneficial to have the intention to learn the stimulus materials.
Experiment I was designed to find a functional relationship between the number of reinforced trials in terms of learning criteria and the easiness of shifting to a new discrimination learning in young children. Group 5 was required to learn a position discrimination until 5 successive correct responses, and Group 10 until 10 successive rights and Groups 15, 20 and 30were likewise required to learn the problem until corresponding numbers of successes. As soon as they met the criteria, the problem was shifted to color (white vs. red) discrimination with the same criteria of 10 successive correct responses for all groups. Group C10 was added, which was the reverse of Group 10: they were given position discrimination after color problem. The results indicated that Group 10 required the greatest number of trials for learning the second color discrimination, and along which a bi-directional gradient was demonstrated in terms of trials, although the overall group differences were not statistically significant (Table 1, Fig. 1). Number of perseverative errors from position learning was found to be positively related to difficulty of shifting to color discrimination. In Experiment II replicated Experiment I with slight modifications, in that the subjects used were a little older and although Group 5 was exactly the, same as Group 5 in the previous experiment, Groups 10, 20 and 40 were given additional 5, 15 and 35 trials over the criteria used in Group 5. Again a similar finding was obtained (Table 3, Fig. 1). These results failed to show an agreement with previous studies where the positive effects of the overlearning upon the easiness of shifts of post learning were reported. The presnt writers suggests two factors in explaining the results. The first is the response habit connected to a particular stimulus situation as is assumed by the orthodox S-R theorists. This habit evolves rapidly with trials and its strength is negatively related to the easiness of discrimination shiftings. The difference between Groups 5 and 10 is accounted for by this factor. The second factor of discrimination set, on the other hand, develops only after the habit is fairly established. As this factor is trans-situational, it makes shifts of learning easier. In addition, if Krechevsky's concept of hypothesis is true during the pre-solution perid, then this factor togeher with the two factrs previously mentioned can explain most part of discrimination learning (Fig. 2).