The present study is a part of serial studies of the testing effect. We assume “the motivating power” as the most important element of the effect of tests. Considering from the viewpoint of the elements of this motivating power, pupils in advance may be supposed an important source of the motivating power. Because, it is possible to think that when pupils are instructed to be given a test, most of them would be drived to review that materials in order to get good score or to avoid poor score. We attempted, therefore, four experiments to know the effect of announcement of the coming test. The learning materials consisted of a number of dictations of Kanji (chinese character), spellings of English words and some arithmetic problems all of which were to be used in regular school learning situations. Experiment I and II were made with the primary school pupils as subjects, in the so-called con-trolled-group method, that is, on the basis of the pretest result, the Ss were divided into two equivalent groups: the control and experimental groups. Only the experimental group was informed that on the following day they would take a test of the previously learned materials, while the control group was not instructed at all. Then, both groups sat for the same critical test. The difference of scores obtaind from the groups made it possible to analyse the effect of announcement of the coming test. But the difference was statistically not fully significant.(see Table 1, 2 and 5). Experiment III and IV, modified in respect to two or three procedures by reviewing previous experiments, were given to secondary school pupils with the rotation method. In the experiment III, the two comparisons of both group's scores showed a superiority of the experimental group with a fully significant difference.(see Table 3 and 5). In the experiment IV, the experimental groups had again more advantage than the control groups, but there was not fully significant difference between both groups.(see Table 4 and 5) Although these experimental results were individual not statistically significant, their combined effect supports the hypothesis that the announcement of coming test had a motivation power that have the positive effect on performance. It should be pointed out that a further investigation of the effect of announcement of the coming test under the various conditions of learning materials, abilities, and sex, etc. remains an important problem.
Purpose: The question whether the amount of transfer is independent upon the time intervals between the 1st and the 2nd learning has not yet been resolved. The purpose of this study is to be clarify the temporal relations of transfer from a viewpoint of function of similarity and degree of learning. Condition of Experiment: Time intervals between the 1st and the 2nd learning are 0, 2, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Learning tasks are 4 lists (S1-R1, S2-R1, S2-R2, S1-R2), which consist of 10 pair associate nonsense Kanamoji letters. Each list used was verified its reproductive value to be statistically equal. Subjects (691 junior high school boys and girls) are divided into 24 homogeneous groups (each about 30) for the combination of 6 time intervals and 4 lists. After each group learns S1-R1, list as the 1st task, the group is given any of 4 lists as the 2nd task at a particular time interval. The pair is presented twice, and recall trial is given. Two practice trials and one recall trial are regarded as one unit of degree of learning. All groups take 3 units in both the 1st and the 2nd learning. Conclusion: (1) The curves of transfer which were plotted against time intervals between the 1st and the 2nd learning were of 3 kinds of pattern: retention, positive transfer and negative transfer curve. The positive transfer curve declines gradually like the retention curve, but after 30 days it appears to be not significantly different from the negative transfer curve. It also becomes like the negative transfer curve with the increase of degree of learning in the 2nd task. Only the negative transfer curve Is independent from the passage of time.(2) The relations between transfer and time intervals is a function of degree of similarity and of learning in the 2nd task. Under the condition of constant degree of learning in the 1st task; (I) and the degree of learning in the 2nd task is constant, the nearer the gradient of transfer is to + (plus), the more dependent transfer becomes upon time intervals.(II)as the degree of similarity is constant, the nearer the degree of learning in the 2nd task comes close to one of lst task, the more independent transfer becomes from time intervals.
The purpose of the present paper is to throw light upon the relationship between adolescents and their parents in social attitudes. Assuming eight aspects of life philosophy, we prepared a questionnaire. The eight aspects are: democratic, feudalistic, rationalistic, unrationalistic, spiritual, utilitarianistic, socialistic, and egoistic. Subjects of the inquiry were 536 children and their parents. 271 boys and 265 girls were pupils of two junior high schools and two senior high schools in both Nagoya City and Hands City. The findings obtained are as follow: 1. The relationship between the adolescents and their parents in terms of social attitudes differs accordingly as the eight aspects of social attitudes. In feudalistic, unrationalistic, and egoistic aspects, the scores of children in first and second grades of the junior high schools are nearly equal to those of their parents. There was, however, found a significant difference between the children of senior high schools and their parents. 2. The correlation coefficients of social attitudes between the adolescents and their parents are generally lower than those between their father and mother. The older the adolescents, the smaller the coefficients between them and their parents. The correlation coefficients between mother and daughter are higher than those between father and son, father and daughter, or mother and son. 3. The results of the factor analysis revealed that the social attitudes investigated can be grouped into two: (1) democratic, rationalistic, spiritual, and socialistic aspects; (2) feudalistic, unrationalistic, utilitarianistic and egoistic aspects. The similarity of aspects belonged to the same group is found to be greater in parents responses. In some cases an illogical interrelationships among responses in the various aspects are shown in parents and children of the first grade of the junior high schools. This illogicality is diminished in children of the second grade of senior highschools. These results seem to indicate that parents' in fluence on attitudes of their adolescent children decreases with the childrens' age level increased.
In the process of problem-solving in social studies, pupils need to use explicit concepts and exact informations of the contents. Therefore, the development of the basic concepts by the appropriate usage of terms is one of the most important key point in the method of teaching in social studies. The author selected the concept of economical function in this study. In this study 1, 256 pupils from the 4th grade of elementary schools up to the 3rd grade of junior high schools were asked to answer the short questions concerning the usage of money. The analysis of the data reveals that there are some developmental raise in their understanding of the function, but it is not sufficient and continuous. The attitude which shows the moral tendency to be opposed to wasting money are evident throughout the whole grades, but many pupils show that they did not reach to clear understanding. about the function which produce interests and about the processes of lean from bank. Most of the pupil did not express any concern about the changing value of money in actual daily judgement. The analysis of the text-books also reveals that they paid insufficient attention about the explicit usage of terms which would help pupils to develop the concepts. As the final conciusion, the author suggest the need for the wider research on the usage of basic terms in the field of social studies.
Pupil's scholastic achievement in learning social studies show the difference under the influence of various factors. This is an experimental research taking the socio-economic status as one of these factors. Children's socio-economic status are classified into Dx (white-collar workers), Dy (official laborers or wage workers), Dz (daily-workers), and A (farmers). The experiment has been conducted at the fourth grade classes, divided into experimental and control groups according to the pupil's socio-economic status. After the children studied on a same unit (transportation) in the classes, their learning effect were evaluated by test, as to the degree of knowledge and understanding. The result indicated at the score of various groups appeared different along the order of Dx, Dy, Dz, A. However changing the content of units containing the knowledge chiefly related to living-experiences, these differences became decreased, specially in learning effect of Dz group. The fact indicates that the difference of children's achievement attributing to socio-economic status is caused from the character of teaching materials, but from the nature lies in status. Therefore it can be said that children's scholastic aptitude is subject to be equalized and democratized by means of changing curriculum. It is neccessary to accommodate children to curriculum on one hand, but to adapt curriculum to children's abilities is needed on the other hand. This is the basis of the psychological approach to the curriculum reconstruction.