The importance of failure in the daily life of individual and personality development are recognized by many students and investigators. The experimental study of the effects of failure on subsequent activity is, however, extremely meager. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to know how children behave in the failure situations. It is, further, the purpose of the investigation to determine whether children who show undesirable responses in the face of failure may be made, and to modify the children's behavior by the special experiences. The numbers of the subjects of the experiment were about ninty children between the age of 7years-3months and 10years-3months, including equal number of both sexes. In step 1, all subjects were given a failure experience, and the subjects' responses were observed by the examiner through a one-side screen and recorded. On the basis of the results, the subjects were classified into three same quality groups; success group, failure group, and control group. In step 2, these groups were given each differential experiences. And in step 3, all subjects of all groups were observed again how they respond such a failure situations as in step 1.The children's responses in failure, were roughly distinguished “the behaviors on the problem solving” from “the unrelated behaviors on it”, and each of them was devided into several subcategories. After that, the responses which the subjects showed in step 3 were compared with them in the first failure situation, and the states of modification in those responses were examined. The diagnostic value of these experiments shown in that they were able to differentiate clearly those subjects who behaved in an undesirable manner from those subjects who did not by “the Persistence Standard Score” (as defined in this study). As the result, it is found that the correlation between PersistencSet andard Score with I.Q. is (r=) 0.178, with introversion-extroversios n (r=) 2.66, and with the Otomo's neurotic standard is (r=) 8.11. Further, it seems to indicatet hat the failure experience, generally, make to decrease the subjects' Persistence Standard Score or desirable responses, while the success make to increase them. The variances were statistically significant. Lastly some theoretical consideration of this modification in behavior was attempted.
This study attempts to clarify how to use the questionnaire-method in the investigation of inferiority feelings. We assumed that the inferiority feelings relating dynamically with superiority feelings develop on the following 4-stages: (1) objective basis-factors which may cause the subjective basis. (2) subjective basis-self-evaluation which may correlate with (1) and is supposed to cause the superiority-inferiority feelings. (3) superiority-inferiority feelings (consciousness) which depend on (2). (4) compensatory feelings (consciousness) for (3). We designed the three kinds of questionnaire using the rating scale method, each of which corresponds to (2),(3) and (4) stage respectively, and the recording blank for gathering of the objective data which correspond to (1). In this study, 20 factors corresponding, to (1) are selected as the items in each questionnaire, and they may be classified into 3 groups (7 of them are physical, 4 intellectual and 9 social). 20 factors in (1) are then represented in different expressions in each of questionnaire corresponding to (2),(3) and (4) respectively. The Ss are 19 boys and 17 girls in the 2nd grade of a junior high school. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to consider what relations take place between each two of the 4-stages. Result: 1. The relations between (1) and (2) (a) The number of the items which were related in (1) and (2) in the direction to “inferiority” was 6% of the whole items. (b) The number of the items which were rated in (1) in the direction to “inferiority” but in (2) in the direction to “superiority” was 4% of the whole items. (c) The number of the item which were rated in (1) in the direction to “superiority”, but in (2) in the direction to “inferiority” was 2% of the whole items. 2. The relations between (2) and (3) (a) The number of the items which were rated in (2) in the direction to “inferiority” and in (3) in the direction to “inferiority feeling” was 9% of the whole items. (b) The number of the items which were rated in (2) in the direction to “inferioriy” and in (3) in the direction to “feel nothing for” was 5% of the whole items. (c) The number of the items which were rated in (2) in the direction to “inferiority”, but in (3) in the direction to “superiority feeling” was 1% of the whole items. 3. The relations between (3) and (4) (a) The number of the items which were rated in (3) in the direction to “inferiority feeling” and in (4) in the direction to “wish to be more superior” was 14% of the whole items. (b) The number of the items which were rated in (3) in the direction to “inferiority feeling” and in (4) in the direction to “accept to be as it is” was 5% of the whole items. As stated above, it was revealed that a variety of relations take place between the each two of 4-stages. Thus, the results will indicate that in the use of questionnaire-method in research of inferiority feelings, the questionnaires corresponding to each stage of (2),(3) and (4) must be designed. The writer considers it necessary one to take the above stated 4-stages whenever one deals with the dynamic problems of inferiority feelings.
This research consists of three parts: (1) the analysis of error responses of teacher-made tests,(2) the analysis of scientific knowledge from the point of view of its developmental aspect and (3) the analysis of the retention of scientific knowledge from the point of view of its contents. Each part will be explained in detail as follows (1) Fifteen problems referred to “science of water” were selected from various teacher-made problems. Errors to all items of the problems were classified into the several degrees from trifling degree to serious degree, according to the distance from correct response, and scored as -1, -3, -3, etc., As the results, many sorts and various degrees of errors were revealed. In comparison of the rate of errors, the rate of non-response and the average minus scores of a error between the pupils who were good in science and those were poor, the good pupils tended to get correct response and even if they mistake, they made only trifling errors. The pupils on the medium made various degrees of errors, some of them relatively trifling but some considerably serious or unusual. Many poor pupils had no response or made so serious errors that we could not find out the relationship to the correct response at all. (2) The processes in which the scientific concepts developed were considered as follows. i) the primitive experiences in daily life, ii) the higher experiences by observation or experiment, iii) the lower abstraction, e.g. the qualitative knowledge, etc., iv) the fixated conception, e.g. the quantitative law, etc. Eight tests were made to diagnose the structure of knowledge of- the pupils of the 1st and the 2nd grade of secondary school. Four of them were made referring to “science of water” and the others to “temperature and heat”. Each test consisted of about 30 items which were arranged according to the developmental process of the scientific concept. Besides, two scientific vocabulary tests were made and administrated. As the results of these testings, the rates of correct responses to items decreased gradually from the items which needed only the primitive knowledge to those which needed high abstract knowledge. Especially the decreasing tendency was significant in the rates of the pupils poor in science and of the 1st grade pupils. (3) The tests for the 4, 5, and 6th grade were made and each of which contained the problems of six units. The problems of each unit were made in order to evaluate four aspects of ability. The 4, 5, and 6th grade pupils were given all tests which contained only the problems that the pupils had already learned in the class. The results showed general increase of the rate of correct responses as the grade became higher and the variance of the rate within the grades, four aspects of ability and six units were all significant. As to the items of which the pupils had already learned and of which the rates of the correct responses were lower than the other items, the higher the grade was the more improved tendency appeared in the rates of correct responses. However, there were items which gave the lower rate of correct response as the grade was higher. As for these items, the higher the intelligences of the pupils were, the slower the rate decreased.
In the present paper the authors study especially the following two problems on the method of science education. 1) We aim to survey the actual states of the scholary attainments of science among the school children in some communities and to analyse them in quality and quantity, excuting the achievement test confining itself to the side of the knowledge of science. 2) It is essential to analyse the factors which are supposed to prescribe the differences in the attainments among schools, such as the domestic environments the arrangements for experiments etc. Here, however, we take up and clarify chiefly the views of science in those communities and afterwards examine their regitional differences, carrying out two kinds of questionarie: one for the children and the other for their parents. The results are as follows: 1) The result of the standerdized achievement tests in science which were carried out in four different communities, shows that the lower decline of scientific knowledge was markedly seen in rural communities. Though discriminative power on test items and the forms of providing problems were investigated by the application of G. coefficient method, no definite tendency was seen. Therefore, the problems were divided into two groups, one consisting of difficult ones, the other of easy ones, by judging from the degree how far the rate of correct answers was got out of the average, and the marked difference between two groups was studied. By these studies, it is concluded that unless scientific phenomenon is realy experienced through both observation and experiment by the pupils, they can hardly get the true comprehension and the scientific reasoning which lies in the background of the phenomenon. Furthermore, when this standerdized achievement test was tested in the interview situation, the increasing of scores was remarkably seen in rural communitied. Through this fact, it is denoted that there lie many problems which need much consideration, where scientific knowledge is to be tested with the from of paper test. 2) The views of science among these children and their parents were surveyed in our primary schools from the method of rank order. As for the order of importance of science towards all subjects, showing no difference among schools, ranking in the second order with sociology following after Japanese and Arithmetics. As for the order of choice of liking and disliking, it was found that boys liked it while girls rather disliked it. The survey about the attitude towards science showed some differences among communities, but these differences were not so significant that we could not conclude that there are fundamental differences between the rural and urban districts in views of science.