This study is the 2nd report by the author concerning the study on the human relationship between pupil and teacher. The 1st report was an analysis of pupils' attitude toward their teachers. In order to confirm the points which had been proposed in the 1st report, the author took six teachers as subjects and investigated their personality traits and the educational attitude toward their pupils which had caused the differences in the pupils' attitude toward them. As personality traits, sex, age, intro-extro vert, the term of teaching experience and final schooling were adopted. In order to investigate the patterns of teachers' educational attitude toword the pupils, a questionnaire was made, asking the teachers their daily attitude toward the pupils. The questionnaire consisted of five investigation sheets (1) affectionate indifferent (2) authoritathe laissez-faire (3) strict liberal (4) devoted neglectful (5) qualified unqualified. The pupils' attitude toward their teaehers was then compared with the teachers' personality traits and educational attitude toward the pupils. The main results of the investigation were as follow; The teachers' sex and age scarecely influenced upon the pupils' attitude toward them but their educational attitude toward the pupils much influenced upon it. Those teachers who had more desirable human relations to their pupils were identified as qualified, devoted, liberal and affectionate.
Pre-adolescent agers are said to be in the age that they realize what fairness is and what is not. They will hardly be indoctorinated by the so-called pseu-An observation through the “Moral Diagnosis Form*” has been made on the moral reflections of the seventh and eighth grade students inclusively to analize why they are apt to make mistakes in their moral judgements. The survey aims to understand their unique moral sense or conscience at their teenage. 1.“We should not be coward or shy at our moral deeds,” is well reflected in those pre-adolescent agers.“To be courageous” will be for them a foundamental logic most needed to accomplish their moral conduct. “Make no scruple, nor evasion in facing with difficulties,” “Don't be coward, shrunk don't cheat yourself nor others,” “I am equal as well as you are even in front of authorities or powers,” these from their moral logic, more or less. 2. They have rather rougher perception on what bad is than what good is. 3. More misjudgements are found in their own cases than the cases of other memberes of their own family, of their own companions, and of their community only because of shortcoming of their courage to admit their own mistakes. They hardly set themselves free from their moral logic,“To be courageous,” regretably mixed-up with “To be stubborn”.
To appraise personality of the blind, the projectiveuse of the sound stimuli was attempted. It was the acoustic apperception test. In order to consolidate its validity from various angles, the acoustic TAT of the Kagawa University applied to those who are of the normal sight, and the personality was subjected to the thorough comparative study, by means of other tests. Tests applied and contents are as follows: (1) The Acoustic TAT It consists of ten scenes of livelihood sounds, tape-recorded, one minute each in length. In application, the subjects were given the stimulative scene in turn by tape-ercorder and were asked to write down the story. Example 1; The gong of departure-soundedbustling and hustling-bell-Auld Lang Syne overlapped. Male voice,“Hang it!” “Don't bother! All finished” in young woman's voice-A whistle, music, feding-out. (2) TAT (Waseda University Edition) (3) Rorschach Test(original edition) (4) Yatabe-Guilford Personality Test (5) Rosenzweig P-F Test(Sumida-Hayashi) (6) Color Symbolic Test (Obonai-Matsuoka) (7) Sentence Completion Test (Psychopathic Research Institute) (8) Diagnostic Propensity Test(Tanaka Educational Research Institute) Personality tested by the acoustic TAT has proved to have various tendencies in common with the other aforesaid tests. Application of the acoustic TAT seems to be promissing.
This study is a part of a serial, studies on the effects of testing upon learning achievement, and the experimental designes are based on a hypotheses as follows: Testing on the materials which the pupils previously learned should make them recognize what they have mastered, and what that they have not mastered of the materials. Then, the following assumptions can be taken for granted: 1) A failed part of the learned materials as recognized by a pupil would motivate him to relearn the part. 2) Relearning the materials, they would more effectively learn it with efforts or attention. 3) The memory traces which remained from original learning will be reinforced by relearning and retesting. The main purpose of this experiment is to confirm the assumptions of 1) and 2). Using “Two-number figures” and “nonsense syllable” as learning materials, and using “the control group method” and “the rotation method,” four experiments in all were gived. The details of the experimental procedures differed on each experiment. Fig. 1, 2, 3, and 4 show the processes of four experiments. And the essential process in common to all those experiments was: 1) to let two equivalentgroups equivalentgroups: the experimental and the controlled, learn identical materials, 2) to give a test on the materials to the experimental groupcertain days after they were presented, 3) to let both the groups relearn the original materials later and then 4) to examine the influences of the test given upon the relearning products, comparing two groups. The effect in answering to the test given was examined by means of comparing the differenecs in the achievement of two kinds of task: a recall of the materials right after relearning, and that of certain days after the first recall. Achievement of each experiment of 1, 2, 3, and 4, are shown in each table of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. Table 7 is the general picture of all experiments. In Table 7, there are presented 12 indicies in all in order to closely examine the validity of the hypotheses mentioned above. Six of the indicies (*marked in Table 7) positively support the validity of our hypotheses and four of them have an inclination toward agreement with our hypotheses although they are not so on an significant level. The other two indicies (underlined in Table 7) are against to our hypotheses, but the difference is small enough to be ignored. Thus, all the results of this experiment prove that our working hypothese are valid.
I. This is a report of a two-year psychological study concerning English as a school subject. The first year included (1) pupils' English ability test, and (2) research on the relation between English ability and interest in English. The pupils were examined in two groups: the superior and the inferior. The superior pupils showed more interest in English and wanted teaching techniques to be improved. The inferior pupils did not show so much interest in English and complained about the teachers, personalities. The English ability test showed what kind of words or sentence patterns were difficult to the pupils. II. In order to ascertain the real condition of the inferior pupils in English, the purpose of the second year was set to clarify (1) the relation between the teacher' teaching methods and their pupils' English ability, and (2) the difference of ability between the superior group and the inferior group. As subjects, 661 pupils of the 2nd year classes of several junior high schools in Tokyo were selected. III. The study of the pupils'English ability covered various aspects: words, reading comprehension, composition, grammar and pronunciation. The main results were: (a) Difficulty increases along the aspects as follows: reading comprehension, pronunciation, grammar, word meaning, composition. (b) The inferior group was very poor in reproducing words. (c) The superior group found it difficult to under stand meaning as sentences became longer, but the inferior group did not show any clear tendencies. (d) The comprehension of sentences became more difficult when they were given orally rather than visually. (e) The greatest difference of ability between the superior and the inferior groups appeared in composition. (f) When pronouncing words given visually, both groups showed more difficulty with vowels than with onsonants. (g) As for accentuation, both groups failed more in 3-syllable words than in 2-syllable words. IV. As for reading comprehension, specially designed problems were used to probe what the causes of the inferior pupils' difficulties were. The problems were divided into 4 parts: (1) comprehension of a 75-word paragraph; (2) translation of short sentences which were taken out of the previously mentioned paragraph and which included important function words; (8) questions concerning the grammar which was necessary for translating the paragraph; (4) test on words taken out of the paragraph. The results were: (a) Both groups showed the greatest difficulty in translating the short sentences. (b) The inferior group had no exact knowledge of word meaning. (c) The relation between the translation of the short. sentences and the knowledge of word meaning was fairly high in both groups, but the relation between, other coefficients was not so high. (d) Failure in translation was mainly due to lack of knowledge of elementary sentence patterns rather than of word meaning. V. The teachers, teaching methods were examined in two ways. One was done by a questionnaire and the other was by tape-recording actual lessons in class. Based on the answers to the questionnaire, a numerical evaluation to each teachers methods was made to take one case for instance; it was able to out how much emphasis a teacher put on word drill. But actually, there could not be found the corelation between the teachers, methods and their pupils'ability. Therefore, the second means was employed. But in this case, the problem was how to give a. numerical evaluation to what had been recorded. As an index, the time employed for explanation or drill and the frequency of repetition were used. This brought more satisfactory results than the former, but was not entirely statisfactory.