The purpose of this study is to clearify the characteristics of gifted children by basic experimental methods. The Japanese edition of WISC was administered to children in an elementary school in Tokyo, and those who have IQ higher than 130. were selected. They were 25 in number or 2.4 per cent to the total. Twenty five children with normal intelligence were also selected to make a control group. Questionnaires and tests were administered to the subjects. And a survey was done with to their parents and teachers. The comparison was made in terms of characteristics listed below and the results were: 1) Gifted children showed superiority on items with asterisk.(****indicates that the difference between gifted and normal children is significant at 0.1 per cent level, ***1 per cent level, *20 per cent level.) 2) Normal children showed superiority on items with asterisk in parentheses. 1. Intellectual characteristics on WISC scores. 2. Characteristics in physical and motor development: i) Physical development-height, weight, and girth of chest. ii) Motor skill-grasping power (left hand, and right hand*), tapping speed (left hand (****) and right hand), and aiming***. 3. Characteristics in developmental history: i) Weight at the birth***. ii) Age of cutting the first tooth. iii) Age of beginning of speech. iv) Age of beginning of walking. v) Age of beginning of use of letter*** (reading and writing) vi) Amount of letters learned in pre-school age*.(letters able to read and letters able to write) 4. Characteristics in interests, play and extracurricular activities: i) Special lessons besides school***. ii) Reading.(favorite books, number of books read per week) iii) Play. 5. Characteristics in learning activity. i) Study hours at home (per week)(*) ii) Preference among school subjects. iii) School attendance. 6. Characteristics in school grade.
This study aims at pursuing the change resulted from repeated testing given to the subjects, Junior High School pupils, either by their teacher or nonteacher, Who is an instructor from the outside. The experiments are carried Out in the following four conditions. (1) The first test is given by the teacher and the second one by an instructor from the outside. (2) The first test is given by the instructor from the outside and the second one by the teacher. (3) Both the first and the second tests are given by the teacher. (4) Both the first and the second tests are given by the instructor from the outside. The subjects are the boys and girls of the first grade Junior High School (Table 2) and the test used. is the Honesty test. and the results is considered to be affected neither by the repetition are of the test nor by the influence of memory. Results: The following findings were revealed through this investigation: (1) As the first test carried out by the teacher, small number of subjects committed false behaviors, only whereas a great number of false behaviors occurred in the testing done by the instructor from the outside. (2) However, it has been clear through the second administration of test that the teacher does not always give stronger inhibitory influence upon the subjects than by the instructor from the outside. In the case of the second condition, the amount of false behaviors done by the teacher is bigger than that by the instrcutor from the outside. (3) Thus it seems that the experience of the subjects in the previous test affects the result of the next test to a great extent. However, the amount of the occurrence of false behaviors is small when both the first test and the second test are given by the same person, either the teacher or the instructor from the outside, that is in the case of the third and fourth condition. As to the next step of our research, subjects should be also given other tests and should be analysed in terms of their age. Furthermore, the case in which the instructor from the outside would be more inhibitory towards the subjects than the teacher should be investigated.
As the first step of educational psychological study of “teaching vocation” as a subject matter of secondary school, three fundamental skills of woodworks such as sawing, planeing and hole-making by chisel were selected. Subjects: Subjects were 61 boys of 8th grade randomly selected from different three secondary. schools. Each represented districts of, industry, commerce and residence, and agriculture. To avoid measuring errors, the same instructions manual was used. The details of wood-works: (1) Sawing: to make one-inch cubes as many as possible out of a long bar which section is one inch square for 15 minutes.(2) Planeing: to make a plane board of 2.8×8×0.4inches for 60 minutes.(3) Hole-making by chisel: to make a 0.5 inch square holes as many as possible on a plane board for 40 minutes. Scales for evaluation: to. quantity qualities of each product of children, different 2-point-scales for evaluation (passed or failed) were made. The full score on each scales were 7 points for sawing, 22 for planeing and 21 for hole-making by chisel. The correlations: The following 5 kinds of scores were correlated. (1) quality of sawing (mean of scores) (2) quantity of sawing (number of products) (3) planeing (scores) (4) quality of hole-making (mean of scores) (5) quantity of hole-making (number of products) Scores of two aptitude tests, mechanical aptitude test, and vocational aptitude test made by a ministry of labour were also correlated. It resulted that there was no correlation among the scores except one between quantity of hole-making, both of which contain the same factor of speed.