教育心理学研究
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8 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
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  • 原谷 達夫, 松山 安雄, 南 寛
    8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 1-7,65
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.12の民族的国家的集団に対する大阪市在住学徒のステレオタイプが質問紙法によつて求められ, 各集団ごとに上位5特性を表示した。
    2.Katz & Bralyの手法により, 中学生, 高校生, 大学生という標本群ごとにステレオタイプの一致度指数を求め, それぞれ.24,.28,.26という平均値を得た。
    3.民族的好悪感情の順位を測定した結果から, ステレオタイプを通して示された好意性との関連を考察した。とくに注意されたのは, 日本人学生の自己帰属感における知的感情的両側面の不一致である。
    4.対照的な結果として朝鮮人に対するステレオタイプの非好意性と選択順位の低さとの合致が指摘され, 検討が加えられた。
    5.われわれが得た成果を理論的に次の2点に集約してみた。
    i) 本邦学徒の一致度指数があまり高くない根拠としては, 知的分化という面のほかに, 民族的無関心という面が指摘されよう。
    ii) 欧米資本主義的先進国に対する日本人学徒の劣等感は, 朝鮮人のステレオタイプ像へ投射される可能性があり, 客観的理性にもとづく認識により偏見を克服する必要が感じられる。
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  • 葛谷 隆正
    8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 8-17,65
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    われわれは民族的好悪とその人格性要因に関する問題について男女232名に対して行なつた調査結果を考察してきたが, いまその主要な点を要約し列挙してみることとしよう。
    (1) 大学生の民族的好悪の状態は5年前の調査結果と比較して0.874という高い相関があり, かなりの一致性がみられるが, 特にシナ人・インド人・朝鮮人に対しては一の方向に, オーストラリヤ人・スイス人・アメリカ人に対しては十の方向にかなりいちじるしい変化をきたしていた。
    (2) 民族的好悪感と民族的優劣観とは0.760の相関を示し, 相当の一致性のあることがわかつた。しかし, ロシア人・ユダヤ人・シナ人・アメリカ人においては好悪感よりも優劣観においていちじるしく+であり, これに反し日本人・インド人・ビルマ人・フィリピン人・黒人に対してはいちじるしく一であることが注目された。
    (3) 民族的好悪と人格性要因との関係については,(i) 外国びいきの性格の強もいのはそうでないものよりも優劣点・自己嫌悪点がより高く, 偏見点においてより低いという傾向が顕著にみられた。しかし偏見点が彼等においてより低いということは外国びいき自国ぎらいという人間的罪悪感から逃れるためのかれらのとる自己防衛手段の現われではないかと察せられる。
    (ii) ・偏見的性格の強いものはそうでないものに比して優劣点がより低く自己嫌悪点がより高いという傾向が明瞭に看取された。
    (iii) 自己嫌悪の強いものはそうでないものよりも優劣点も偏見点もより高いという傾向がはつきりうかがわれた。
    (iv) したがつて, 外国びいきの性格の強いものも偏見的性格の強いものも基本的には同一の人格性力学をもつた2つの異なつた姿であると見られる。
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  • 久芳 忠俊
    8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 18-25,66
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) 欲求不満に対する攻撃の方向および型は年令の増加たしたがつて外罰方向 (E) から内罰方向あるいは無罰方向へと移動していく。
    (2) 要因分析の結果からすると,(E) 反応が年令が長ずるにつれて消えていく, そして9才, 11才では (I) 反応がマイナスの方向をとつている。
    (3) これに対して11才になると (I, M) 反応が多くなり,(E) 反応はマイナスの方向をとつてくる。
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  • 吉川 房枝
    8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 26-37,67
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, an attempt was made to observe self-consciousness of students of junior and senior high schools in relation to the problems of selfacceptance.
    1) In what manner are the youth self-conscious?
    High school students wrote compositions under the subject “I”, and gave answers to the questionnaires made on the basis of two different categories-“agreeable self” and “disagreeable self”. The result shows that the adolescent self-consciousness has as substance much that relates to the feelings and the attitudes toward other people, and that the number of students describing their own defects and self dissatisfactions are much greater than those who write about their own good points and their selfsatisfactions.
    2) How does their self-consciousness relate to the evaluations and the attitudes others have towards them?
    In order to see how the criticism of other people influences the self-evaluation of the adolescent and how it is accepted, the writings of the young people on “Other people's criticism about me” were analyzed. It was revealed that those young people were two or three times more conscious of negative criticism than of positive criticism about them. It was also found that they accepted much more than half the criticisms of both kinds as holding true. The manner in which the criticism was accepted differed according to sex and school-grades and also according to the categories of people who criticized.
    In order to see what relation there is between their consciousness of what other people think of them and their attitudes towards themselves, a study was made of how they interpret other people's anger towards them, then investigated the relation between their interpretation and their attitude towards their own good points and bad points. It was found that those who were positive in understanding others were inclined also to be positive towards themselves, and that those who were negative in their understanding of others tended to be negative towards themselves. From the point of view of age, it was observed that the younger the person the more inclined he was to inter pret other people's anger as hostile towards himself.
    In the research made on how they consider thireown anger, differences were found according to their ages. There, again, the same relationship as before was seen that those who were lenient towards others were lenient also towards themselves.
    3) With regard to the assistance to be given to young people in their problems of self-acceptance: It was clear from the answers to the questionnaires that the greatest joy and sorrow, suffering or anger were frequently caused by approval or disapproval of other people. From this fact, it can be said that other people's criticisms and attitudes play a big role in the formation of self-evaluation of the youth. As a consequence, it is the author's opinion that to make them hold sound judgements upon other people's criticisms by means of the technique of compairing their own way of judgements and that of other people, role-playing and discussions, or changing values in “possible-self”, can be considered as means of helping the youth acquire healthy self-acceptance.
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  • 宮川 知彰
    8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 38-47,68
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The following experiments were conducted to investigate how acquaintance with strangers is formed.
    The Procedure and Method of Experiment I:
    Five children in the 4th year of primary school who were strangers to each other were called into a room together and left by themselves for 10 minutes. The behaviors they showed toward each other were observed individually through a oneway mirror by 5 observers. Before they were called into the room each subject was instructed that he would be given various kinds of psychological tests and that he would be kept waiting a few minutes till the arrangements for testing were completed. After the 10 minutes of planned observation, a small test was actually given to the subjects in another room to make them believe that the instruction was observed. During the observation period, each observer recorded (1) the frequency with which one subject looked at each other subject,(2) talked to others,(3) parts of the room seen by him, and (4) parts of the room touched with his fingers. The conversation among the subjects was recorded by a tape-recorder through a microphone on the wall. Besides the 5 observers, the conductor of the experiment (CE), and the person reading seconds (W), all worked together. The W informed the CE and each observer the passing time every 10 seconds throughout the experiment. The announced seconds were also recorded by the taperecorder.
    The CE gave needed instructions such as starting and stopping the observation. The experimental observations were carried out 3 times (once a day for 3 days) for each group of children. The results and discussion of Experiment I: (1) It was revealed that, at the beginning, the subjects glanced at each other and attempted to evade the glances of other subjects by looking at certain parts of the room.(2) As they recognized that each of them was sharing the coincidence of being a stranger to the anothers, the first step in familiarity began to come into existence and their exploratory behavior toward one another became frank and more active.(3) Subsequently, to each child other children became cognitively differentiated, each seen with different degrees of preference. This step run parallel with the 1st one.(4) When the familiarity was being formed, a leader was emerging at each step.(5) The leaders in those occasions were the children who positively proclaimed the cognition of any kind of coincidence prior to other children. And status of one member in the group seemed to be determined according to the numbers of the other members who accepted the content of his proclamation and to the extent of their resonance with it.(6) It is presumed that the more glances received from other children or the more talks directed toward him, the higher status a child was given, and that the child who obtained the highest status became a leader.
    The Procedure and Method of Experiment II:
    A new member is called into the group of 4 children who had already become acquainted with one another and all were observed,
    The results and discussion of Experiment II: (1) A new comer was accepted and participated in the group only after the cognition of coincidence on the part of both sides, a new comer and the existing group was formed.(2) The exploratory behaviors shown by the new member toward the other group members were more active than those shown by the latter toward the former.(3) As the familiarity between both grew, the other members were structured into the new member's cognition.(4) Thus, the preceding formation of familiarity between the new member and certain individuals of the first group contribute to let the new member be accepted by the group.
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  • 長町 三生
    8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 48-51
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    この論文は, 1) 日本語の無意味綴字を刺激とした言語的条件づけ式の二様選択事態において, これまでの研究の結果のようなmatching行動が認められるだろうか。2) 個々の被験者の予言反応率をみるとかなりの変異が認められるので, それらの個々人の反応を規定する要因として, 被験者自身による刺激の期待確率と不安度とを取りあげ, それらと予言反応率との関係をみようとした。
    実験の結果は, 犬学生を被験者とした場合matching行動は存在したが漸近値において男女間に差があつた。また, 個々の試行ごとの反応率をみると統計理論に合わない現象がみられた。期待確率と反応率については, 初期においては期待確率に相応した予言反応率は認められたが最終的にはその関係は非常に弱く, むしろある程度刺激事象の生起確率に反応する傾向があつた。不安度と反応率との間の相関は非常に低い値しか得られなかつたが, 男子においては, 不安度の低い被験者が高い予言反応率をとる傾向があつた。
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  • モーリス ドベス
    8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 52-59
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 64-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 8 巻 (1960) 1 号 p. 65
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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