The first aim of this study was to determine by Q-sorts the nature of the self, ideal self and ideal opposite sex concept of the adolescent. The second aim was to confirm the relationship among those concepts by Q-technique. 85 cards were prepared and on each of them was described a word which indicated one of various personality traits. The subjects were required to classify the cards into seven grades in the order of the accordance of the personality traits first with their self concept, second with ideal self concept, and third with ideal opposite sex concept. The results are as follows: 1. There is a similarity between the self concept and ideal self concept. The self concept should be reflected in the ideal self concept. 2. On the other hand, the ideal opposite sex concept shows a considerable contrast with the self concept. In the ideal opposite sex concept, the subject is likely to highly appreciate the traits he lacks in his self concept. 3. Those subjects who show greater discrepancies between self sorting and ideal self sorting and those who show less discrepancies were selected.As a result of the analysis of them by Q-technique, two factors are found. The first factor reflects the tendency toward introspection or self reflection, and is found mostly among the subjects who show greater discrepancies. The second factor reflects a tendency toward self acceptance and of setting a high value on social adjustment. It is found primarily among subjects who show less discrepancies.
The purpose of this research was to construct a dependency scale and analyze the home environmental factors which influence children's dependency. A questionnaire was divided into two parts.One consisted of 30 items constituting a dependency scale. These items were collected according to our definition of dependency as “seekingtphysical contact and proximity,” “seeking attention,” “seeking help,” “seeking approval or recognition,” and “seeking safety.” Each item had a trichotomous ch oiceform. The other part inquired into the socio-economic cul-tural background, the fundamental habits of the children and the patterns of rearing. The questionnaire was filled out by 360 mothers whose children attended three nursery schools in Tokyo. Ages of the children ranged from 4 years 8 months to 6 years 4 months. As a result of an item analysis, twenty-two items were selected to construct the “dependency scale.” The raw score was transformed into standard score in each age level. A child who had low score on this scale was judged to be independent from the content of the questionnaire items. The reliability coefficient obtained by the split-half method was 0.75. The results of the comparison between the score and the various factors in question are as follows: 1. Socio-economic cultural background seems to have no relationship to dependency in children. Items in the material environment-e. g., a piano, a violin, a slide, a swing and magazines-do not relate to the formation of independence of children. 2. Free movement area for children seems to be necessary for the development of independence. 3. Appropriate development of personality is strengthened by contact with siblings. This would suggest the desirability of socio-personal relations among children of similar ages. 4. Fundamental habits of children highly correlate with dependency scores. Patterns of rearing are judged to have a strong influence on the adequate formation of these habits. It is tchildren's nature t: to be dependent. Theyacquire independence through the learning process. An important thing to be investigated in futurestudy is when and how a child best develops his, independence at a given agelevel.
It may safely be said that educational psychology is psychological approach to solve the problems of education. I regard the problem of education as that research on education is to find the educational problem and to devise some means of solution to them. As method of general psychology, three propositions are taken into account. The first: the structure of consciousness awared by introspection of one's own experience. The second: the significance of mind understood by interpretation of manifestation. The third: the formation of life organized by operation of behavior. These three propositions show the three realms of research on psychology, however, they are taken as the logical development of psychological methods. I call it as the co-ordinates transposition of meaning in psychology. I think that the co-ordinates represented by the first proposition indicates the system of meaning in psychological experience, the second one the system of significance, and the third the system of value; then that concept of culture is. able to be recognized in the system of value. The co-ordinates X and Y indicate the content of experience (X) and the temporal relation (Y). The system of meaning would be expressed in coordinates in which X=self, Y=time. Self contains the relation of ego (+X) and anti-ego (-X). Time implicates the relation of future (+Y) and past (-Y). The system of significance in which X-ralter ego, Y=genesis, besides, +X-behavior, -X-symbol, +Y = development, and -Y=tendency. In the system of value X-society, Y=history. Society contains the relation of role (+X) and culture (-X), and history implicates the relation of ideal (+Y) and reflection (-Y), these correspondences make four plaine; responsibility (+X, +Y), destiny (+X, -Y), innovation (-X, +Y), and tradition (-X, -Y). Educational psychology is a scientific operation that is to study the possible social roles of individuals to perform, considering personality and its development of human nature detected through interpreting and understanding the other's manifestations according to the relationships of culture and role in human life through which personality is formed. The study of personality in educational psychology may make an issue of only the diagnosis of personality but also the therapy of it. The treatment or therapy is done on the need of life to call for it. In medical treatment, on the one hand, health against disease may be regarded as a criterion of its evaluation, in educational therapy, on the other hand, mental health that would have to be diagnosed from necessity of life or social need. As the necessity of life, however, is divided as to individual's life need, how comes the criterion of evaluation to be laid down? This raises the problem of culture and role. As for the methodology of educational psychology, formation of, personality or building up a character whould be handled as method of guidance that let an individual perform his social and cultural role in history. The method of guidance is being studied as psychology of learning, but in that case, psychological research on teaching subjects or materials as learning conditions becomes an issue. This is studied regarding as psychology of teaching subjects, for the method, that requires the conditioned genetic method which takes the teaching materials for learning conditions, and for that methodological study, we should come to grips with the problem of relationship of teaching materials as culture and formation of pupil's personality. This is the educational psychological operation of social action that must be a technological operation for the formation of personality, but an interpreting operation for understanding of manifestation of others. And moreover, in carrying on the operation, operator must be the man who discharge his educational duties as psychologist involved in educational activity, just like physician as medical scientist.
This is an investigation into the predictability of FLAT (Foreign Language Aptitude Test). It is also an attempt to make some improvement. (1) FLAT was planned out in 1955 by one our colleagues and tested on the students (who were then in the 7th grade of a junior high school in Tokyo.) (2) We kept records of the students each year. (3) The school marks record of each year showed a significant correlation with each other. This may be a proof that the teachers' rating is reliable. (4) ELAT did not show as high a predictability as the school mark records. In order to examine the predictability of each part of FLAT, the following investigation was made. (5) The correlation was examined between the tests included in FLAT and those of our self-made English achievement test.(6) The following items showed rather high correlations with each other. Our self-made English word test showed a correlation coefficient. 7 of with the school records. To find out the new items which should be added to FLAT, the relation was examined between the tests included in two kinds of intelligence tests and those of our English achievement tests.The results showed that: (7) The sub-tests of two intelligecne tests which test verbal factors had more relation with English ability than non-verbal items. (8) Some sub-tests using figures and other quantitative items had a high relation with English ability, but no logical reason could be seen for this.