教育心理学研究
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9 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
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  • 竹内 長士, 矢吹 四郎
    9 巻 (1961) 4 号 p. 189-199,249
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) この研究は, 小学校教師の教育的態度における類型的因子を見出すことを目的として, Stephenson, W.のQ-技法を用いて行なわれた。
    (2) Q-分類に対する陳述項目として, 4つの想定された事態に対して言表された教師たちの多数の意見の中から, 100個が選ばれた。それらは25人の小学校教師によつてQ-分類され, その結果の得点行列についてQ-技法による因子分析がなされた。
    (3) 3つの因子が抽出され, それらは各2回直交回転された。回転後因子は, 項目別の因子得点算出の方法によつて解釈された結果,
    (a) 強制-自由 (b) 寛容-厳格 (c) 融合-離反と命名された。
    (4) それら因子の解釈と関連して, いくつかの方法論上の問題が考察された。
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  • 岩脇 三良
    9 巻 (1961) 4 号 p. 200-208,249
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Japanese edition of MMPI wasadministered twice to a group of 214 Japanese cadets. The first administration was under the usual instructional set. Two weeks later, the Ss were divided into three subgroups consisting of approximately an equal number of Ss which differed according totest-taking instructional set. Two experimental groups (favorable set group and unfavorable set group) and one control group (neutral set group) were utilized.
    The introduction of favorable or unfavorable set produced significant changes in the MMPI scores of testees. The K correction has not been found sufficiently valuable to in dicate the faking bad profiles.
    In order to test the efficiency of validity indicators, it has been planned to make a comparison of the validating scores obtained from the three different set groups. The results reported in the present study indicated that the three keys (L, F, K), considered singly, are able to identify faking sets to some extent and that Hs raw score, utilizedsingly, was more successful in discriminating the faking good from the normal scores, but theirmaximum efficacy is realized in combination.
    The results of this study confirmed Gough'sresults that the F-K index has a superior value to detect a normal person who has tried to fake. In the present data, the F-K cutting score for the faking bad profiles was plus seven. This cutting score would correctly classify 97 per cent of the normal cases and 83 per cent of the faking bad cases.
    A new index-L raw score plus K raw score minus Hs (Hypochondriasis scale) raw score- was presented to detect the faking good set. The highest phi coefficient was given by a cutting score of plus 21. This cutting score would correctly classify 97 per cent of the normal cases and 90 per cent of faking good cases.
    The F-K index and the L+K-Hs index may be considered as efficient measures to detectmalingering and test dissimulation in the MMPI.
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  • 亀山 宏子
    9 巻 (1961) 4 号 p. 209-219,250
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    What do we do in case of frustration which gives us on emotion like hostility or shame? Some of us may blame others and some may be embarrassed.The present study is concerned in a restricted way with the role of communication in reducing emotional tensions, and is related to the type of behavior toward frustration.
    The major hypothesis to be tested was as follows: In a situation where emotional frustration and hostile attitude is instigated, opportunity for communication directed toward the instigator (when compared with the lack of this opportunity) will lead to relatively less residual hostility toward the instigator.
    EXPERIMENT
    Subjects: The subjects were 60 female students of the college, chosen as the high aggressive type of frustration and the less aggressive type, by rating of the Rosenzweig P-F Study and the questionaire made for this research. Procedure: The subjects who were scheduled to appear individually at theexperimental room were introduced to a participant of the experiment. The experimenter, in her preliminary instructions. said the purpose of this study was to discover how students could learn another´s personalities by direct communication. This served as the pretext for the experiment. Before proceeding with the main business of communication to one another, both thi subject and the participant were each instructed to write an initial a “personality sketch” consisting of her first impressions of the other. This muchaccomplished, subjects began the communication process, on which the restriction that the content of communication must refer to self was imposed. The participant intended to characterize her as arrogant and opinionated, instigating hostility in the subjects. Her role was standardized and well rehearsed inadvance. 30 of the subjects (No-Com group) were not permitted to communicate after the instigation. The remaining 30 subjects (Com group) were permitted additional communication after the instigation. At the conclusion of this period, each of them wrote a final personality sketch of her partner.
    RESULTS
    In treating the data, content analyses were done separately for their pre-experimental and the post-experimental“personality sketches” of theparticipant (instigator), and the additionalcommunication by thesubjects in Corn group.
    1) The subjects who were permitted to communicate back to an instigator immediately afterinstigation to hostility showed more post-experimental friendliness toward the instigator. It gives qualified confirmation to the hypothesis.
    2) The difference between two groups may be rather attributable to sudden removal of the communication channel forNo-Com group, than the positive function of the communication for Corn group.
    3) Between the type of reaction to frustration and the residual hostility toward the instigator, no marked relation was noticed.
    4) Aggressionis not the immediate psychologicalconse quence of frustration. The emotion aroused may be broad and diffuse, by the interaction of many factors such as the individual´s past experience and the present situation as perceived by the individual. We can not simply classify one´s type of reaction to frustration, nor define consumatory function of communication to act as aggressive behavior which implies frustration.
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  • 村田 孝次
    9 巻 (1961) 4 号 p. 220-229,251
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    1聞き手によって自己の欲求が充足されることを予期してなされる発話 (要求発話) の発達過程を検討するため, 1才児2名 (縦断的研究) と同58名 (横断的研究) から得たデータを分析した。
    2要求そのものを表示する語 (要求語) は, 1才前期では感嘆詞と区別することができないが, 1才後期には特殊的要求を表示する語法ならびに構文論にしたがう慣用型の発話が生じてくる。
    3要求を表示する動詞形と語根を共通にする動詞形が同時期に生じる。幼児における一部の語法概念の形成が示唆される。しかし証明とはならない。
    4要求語および連語型要求発話の使用上の「誤り」の大多数は創造的なものであり適応的であり, 発達心理学的に示唆に富む。
    5連語形成の初期には語間の構文論的結合度が低いが1才の終りには, 主として「目的語+動詞」という連語型要求発話を核として, 構造の密な構文が成立する。
    6以上の諸現象の時間的な生起序列と, おおまかな出現年令は, 縦断的データと横断的データの間でかなりの一致をみ, Leopoldが子息 (アメリカ児) について観察した結果ともよく符合する。
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  • 野呂 正
    9 巻 (1961) 4 号 p. 230-239,252
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    数唱, 実物の数規定, 提示事物と同一数の選択, 数の比較, 要求数の選択, 数の分割, 数の結合, 数の順序変更等の8つの領域に関して, 4, 5, 6才の幼児計112名を対象に実験を試みた。数観念の発達は, 量の観念および順序の観念という2つの観念の弁証法的な闘いの中で展開され, しかも同時に, 対象の知覚的印象からの脱却過程の中で, その闘いの様相が各発達段階を特徴づけていることが, われわれの実験結果から推察される。小学校入学当初までに, 6つの段階が区別された。
    第1段階量的観念と順序的観念が完全にばらばらに存している時期。
    第2段階量的観念と順序的観念との闘いの中で, 量的観念が支配的となる時期。
    第3段階量的観念が一時後退し, 順序的観念が強くなる時期。
    第4段階再び順序的観念が後退し, 量的観念が強くなる時期。
    第5段階量的観念と順序的観念との統一が不安定な時期。
    第6段量量的観念と順序的観念の統一が安定する時期。
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  • 9 巻 (1961) 4 号 p. 249
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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