Rumors questioning the safety of food products promote anxiety among people, leading to mass boycott, and hence serious economic damage. This study explored this function of rumors amongst friends. A total of 312 female participants were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions, and were asked to respond to a scale for evaluating rumor function (Takenaka, 2013). The conditions consisted of a fictitious scenario depicting radioactive tainted milk, and how the rumor was transmitted: 1) the news; 2) anonymous Twitter post by a stranger; or 3) through conversation with a close friend. Participants reported that greater information gathering and information provision functions were present in the news condition compared to the Twitter; and 2) that participants expected the rumor fosters conversation with friends more in the news condition than in the close friend. These results suggested that people tend to use information from news media in conversation with friends, because such information was perceived to be more reliable than other resources.
This study aimed to classify the sub-factors of diversity climate and to investigate the functions and relationships between diversity-related Human Resource (HR) systems. We conducted an online survey of 618 employees working for diverse organizations. First, we made a scale of diversity climate composed of 5 sub-factors. The results of correlation analyses with HR systems showed that the most flexible working systems, such as short-time and flextime systems, were positively correlated with diversity climates, whereas systems like child-care leave were both positively and negatively correlated. Second, the moderation effects of diversity climate on workplace gender diversity were examined. Workplace gender diversity was seen to be a cause for higher turnover intention and lower work motivation among employees, unless they perceived diversity climate at their workplaces. The climate of inclusion for work style diversity seemed particularly important.
This study aimed to examine the antecedent conditions of pluralistic ignorance. We hypothesized that when people perceive a gap between a group member’s actual behavior versus preference, they would attribute it to a sort of norm within the group, and conform accordingly. In Study 1, we conducted a longitudinal survey regarding punctuality norm among college students. In Study 2, we conducted a laboratory experiment to examine the phenomenon step-by-step. Participants entered a laboratory in groups of five and were asked to taste and evaluate two kinds of water in rotation. All participants were led to believe that they were fourth in turn to taste the water, and were told that the first three participants had selected the poor tasting water (Water L), hence participants were informed as to which water was of higher quality. As we predicted, the more the participants believed that the prior participants personally preferred the other water in spite of their selection, the more they tended to conform to the majority’s behavior and select Water L, because they perceived the group norm should to be followed.
After the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima I nuclear power plant caused by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, harmful rumors have reduced sales of fishery products made in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to examine the structure of consumers’ attitudes towards fishery products made in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake, which would affect their buying intentions, a survey was conducted in six areas of Japan. Seven components of consumers’ attitudes were scored at seven levels, and structural equation modeling analysis was performed to investigate the interactions among the components. Among the seven components, ‘anxiety over radiation and nuclear power’ had negative effects on consumers’ buying intentions, while ‘support for earthquake-hit areas’ had positive effects. It was suggested that cultivating awareness of the need to support the areas affected by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake increased the likelihood of consumers purchasing fishery products made in Fukushima Prefecture although consumers also had anxiety about radiation and nuclear power.
This study examined the factors that influence whether people cooperate with government policies regarding natural resource management. We investigated the psychological processes that promote cooperative intentions towards such policies among rural residents, who tended to be concerned about natural resource management, and urban residents, who were less concerned about this issue. This study focused on grassland management in Inner Mongolia, China. Specifically, a survey was conducted to analyze the effects of procedural justice, confidence in the government, and legality on the subjects’ intention to cooperate with government policies regarding grassland management in Inner Mongolia. The rural residents (n=146) were villagers, mostly herders, whereas the urban residents (n=262) lived in Hohhot city. The results indicated that among the rural residents confidence in the government had a marked influence on their intention to cooperate, whereas among the urban residents legality modulated the effects of procedural justice on their cooperative intentions. Therefore, this suggested that even though various actors contribute to shaping social policy, only the values emphasized by the majority of society have a significant effect on the success of a policy.