The purposes of this article are to report the results of the experiment that examined dyadic conversation process and to discuss the suggestions from these results for future studies on social interaction processes. Twenty-four undergraduates (half were males and half females) participated in the dyadic conversation situations, and were proposed to talk about one of three themes; landscape of their campus (consumatory communication), where to go on a trip (information-exchange), crowding of the street around their university (problem-solving). Furthermore, combination of sex (male-female) and intimacy of two participants (high or low) were manipulated. Therefore, the factorial design was 3×3×2. Each protocol was classified into one of eight categories; central or peripheral orientation, new or old information, rational or emotional opinion, or positive or negative evaluation. The former four categories can be integrated into a superordinate level of category which is called protocols for sharing information (IS), the latter four categories are integrated into another one which is called protocols for processing information (IP). The results indicate that (1) individuals use IP more frequently in conversation for problem-solving than for consumatory communication or information-exchange, (2) they use IP less frequently in the male-female condition, and the least when they are not very intimate, therefore (3) protocol categories devised in this study have very high validity. Furthermore, the occurrence ratio of particular types of adjacency pairs was found to be influenced by the type of goal of conversation. Several suggestions from these results are discussed for further research on social interaction processes.
The validity of the space characteristic theory and the measurement method were investigated experimentally. For this purpose, we have proposed two new experimental methods. An experiment was carried out using one of them. It was confirmed that the distribution of θ is calculable from experimental data by the measurement method, and θ of subject was fairly stable during the experiment. From these results, it was concluded that the validity of the theory and the measurement method were verified, and that the research based on the theory is practicable and effective for the study of internal process of subjects in a game situation. The research based on this theory is very different in its experimental method, the way to analyze data, and the interpretation of data, from traditional one. We consider that the research based on the space characteristic theory will indicate a new direction for the study of choice behavior in game situations, and contribute to the understanding of the motivational, and cognitive aspect of choice process which Doi and Imai (1986) have discussed
A new topological approach is proposed for the analysis of change in group structure over time. Special force fields are defined operationally to explain changes in the structure, which are estimated by a method called DYNASCAL, given a set of longitudinal dissimilarity judgements such as longitudinal sociograms. These fields are presumably generated by interactions among individuals. For theoretical simplicity, these fields are supposed to be two-dimensional vector fields, which are described by a system of general nonlinear differential equations. Qualitative theories of the dynamical system such as those of singularities, bifurcations, and structural stability of the vector field are shown to be useful for describibg qualitative aspects of the force fields. Some difficulties in application of our method to empirical data are indicated and ways of overcoming them are discussed
The purpose of this research was to examine the equity theory in the relationships between the aged and their social supporters. The correlations between distress and loneliness in equitable as well as inequitable relationships were investigated by using equity theory. Respondents were sixty eight people aged 65 or older who lived at an old people's home. The results showed that the more benefited the relationship, the higher the Total Mood Index (TMI) scores were. Even if the aged perceived relationships as overbenefited, many of them reported less distress in spite of Walster's theory. The correlation between TMI and loneliness score was significant, and as TMI was high, loneliness score was low.
The present study examined the effects of thinking on resistance to attitude change and on social judgment. The following two hypotheses were tested. (1) “Attitudes formed by extensive thinking about an attitude object will be more resistant to change than attitudes formed with little thought about it. ” (2) “One who thinks about an attitude object will judge it with a smaller latitude of acceptance, with a larger latitude of rejection, and with a smaller latitude of non-commitment than one who is distracted from thinking about it. ” Forty junior high school boys and girls watched a stimulus person (an attitude object) on a video-tape for five munutes. Half of them were instructed to think about the stimulus person. The others were distracted from thinking. Then their attitudes and social judgments were measured on a scale consisting of nine statements which described behavioral intentions toward the stimulus person. The subjects watched a junior high school boy on a video-tape who spoke ill of the stimulus person. Again, their attitudes and social judgments were measured. The results supported both of the hypotheses.
A cross-cultural programme of research into leadership style is reviwed. Built upon Misumi's P-M leadership theory, the project has examined questionnaire responses from over 1, 000 workers and supervisors in electronics plants in USA, Britain and Japan. Substantial support is found for several aspects of the theory
This study investigated the relationships of assessed social support and experimentally provided social suppprt to anxiety and task performance in different stress situations. A 2 (assessed support: high- and low-SSQN) SMITH×2 (high and low stress) ×2 (support manipulation: provided and not-provided) mixed-design was used. Dependent variables were pulse rates as a physiological anxiety index, STAI as a psychological anxiety index, and correct word puzzle solutions. The subjects were 51 college students. There was a significant interaction between support manipulation and stress condition on physiological anxiety. The provided support in a high stress situation tended to reduce anxiety. This tendency was consistent with the idea of buffering effects against stress. The provided support in the high-SSQN subjects in the high stress situation had a negative effect on task performance. Suggestions as to why the provided support in the low-SSQNs did not have facilitative effects on task performance are given
This experiment was conducted to compare the conformity rates in the sudden formed consensus and in the gradually formed consensus in an elective task. The effect of public self-consciousness scores on conformity was also tested. Subjects were 35 (10 males and 25 females) junior college students. The results were as follows: The conformity rate in the sudden formation condition was higher than that in the gradual formation condition. However, after the experiment the amount of private acceptances in the sudden formation condition and the gradual formation condition were not significantly different. Moreover, high scorers of self-consciousness conformed more than low scorers.