This study was designed to examine which of the two cues, visual or auditory, was dominant in impression formation, and how the cue dominance varied according to the cognitive dimensions, sex of the perceivers, and sex of the stimulus persons. Each perceiver was asked to rate the personalities of the same stimulus persons on the individual cue conditions, as well as on a“whole cue condition”involving the simultaneous presentation of both cues. The index for the effectiveness of each cue was the correlation coefficient which indicated profile similarity between the single cue condition ratings and the whole cue condition ratings. The main results were as follows. (1) Generally, the auditory cue was more dominant than the visual one. (2) In the case of male perceivers, contribution of the auditory cue was dominant independently of the cognitive dimensions, while with female perceivers, the cue dominance varied according to the cognitive dimensions.
This study examined (a) the factor structure of causal attributions for loneliness and (b) the relationship between loneliness and causal attributions. Five scales were administered toundergraduate students (N=575). The scales were two versions of UCLA Loneliness Scale (short-term loneliness and long-term loneliness), two kinds of scales of causal attributions for loneliness (checklist of the causes of loneliness and Russell (1982) 's Causal Dimension Scale), and Self-Esteem Scale. Two versions of UCLA Loneliness Scale were completed by different criteria (“for the past two weeks”versus“for the past one year”). The results are as follows. 1) Loneliness scores were higher in males than in females. 2) The factor analysis of the checklist of the causes of loneliness producedeight factors in males, while eleven factors in females. The factor analyses of the Causal Dimension Scaleidentified three factors, labeled locus of causality, stability, and controllability. 3) According to the results of multiple regression analyses and discriminantanalyses, loneliness for males were precipitated by internal and stable attributions, while forfemales, only stable attributions were predictive of loneliness. Furthermore, the relationship attributions which cannot be classified by Weiner (1986) 's model, were associated with loneliness.
The purpose of present study is to reject' breakpoint hypothesis' and to prove' script hypothesis', insisting that persons encoded the pointers, which called scripts representing action-units, and their order when observing ongoing behavior. 58 female undergraduates pressed buttons everytime they judged an action-unit ended while observing an ongoing behavior, which consisted of four large actions including some small subactions. The experimenter instructed a large action-units group (LG) to press buttons to make action-units as large as possible, and a small action-units group (SG) to do as small as possible. Then, subjects judged which of two subactions belonging to the same large action came first. The pairs included' memory pair' whose correct order persons couldn' t judge without having encoded subactions and' script pair' whose order persons could judge by referring to a script of large action. The results were as follows. LG' s responses were as correct as SG' s responses. SG' s responses to memory pairs were faster. LG' s responses to script pairs were faster. They were thought to support'script hypothesis'.