This study examined the changes following conformity, deviation and concession, using majority influence paradigm. Ss were 69 female junior college students who encountered unanimous majority displaying wrong responses. Conformers changed their private opinion to meet the opinion advocated by majority. Deviates perceived majority and themselves negatively. Concessive persons modified their private opinion like the conformers, and, like the deviates, perceived the majority and themselves negatively. These results were discussed from the point of view of intra-interpersonal discrepancy and cognitive dissonance.
The present study aimed at exploring conditions when negative mood effects on person judgments would particularly be moderated. Self-referent and other-referent sentence completion tasks were used as a priming tool to induce negative affective states in subjects. Under the self-referent priming condition, subjects were led to focus their attention to negative aspects of their own self, while under the other-referent priming condition their attention was made directed toward negative aspects of others. After the sentence completion tasks, all the subjects participated in an impression formation task where they rated an ambiguously described target person on several trait scales. As a result, it was found that the negative mood biased subjects' impressions of the target in the negative direction, but that the mood effects were less prevailing when negative affects were elicited by self-referent priming tasks than by other-referent priming tasks. The results were discussed in terms of the Bower and Cohen (1982) 's“blackboard”model, which assumes a mechanism for accommodating the emotional influences upon social judgments, depending on the differences in emotional sources.
The purpose of the this is to examine the following main hypothesis: In a series of group discussions, if one expects to get some support for his oinion of the latter topic, he will conform to others on the former topic. The four hunderd and seven college studens were asked to answer the questionnaire about how they behave (conform or not) in confict situations when their opinions are different from four other friends. The findings are as follows: (1) Students who expected others' support for his opinion on the latter tpic conformed more to the others on the former topic. (2) If the students expected on increased number of supporters on the latter topic, they conformed more to others on the former topic. (3) In the case where the latter topic is more important than the former topic, students conformed more to the others on the former topic.
Ingroup bias found in the Minimal Group Paradigm is an important finding for theories of intergroup relations. However, explanation of the finding is controversial. In this study, we contrast the Social Identity Theory explanation of ingroup bias with a new alternative hypothesis. We argue that ingroup bias is a result of subjects employing a self-interested quasi-strategy in an attempt to gain greater material benefits for themselves. Although the strategy cannot be successful, we argue that the interdependence situation characteristic of the Minimal Group Paradigm deceives subjects into believing it can be successful. Consequently, when subjects are not dependent on other subjects for their own rewards in the Minimal Group Paradigm, ingroup bias disappears. Results of our experiment support the interdependence hypothesis.
The attitudes toward sports of 512 subjects, both athletes and non-athletes of Japanese university, were examined by t test, principal factor analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis in order to clarify the cultural characteristics of sports formed in Japan, England and America which are now practiced in Japan from the viewpoint of norm, and the following conclusions have been reached: 1. The general attitudes toward sports of present-day university and college students tend to be spiritualistic. 2. The cultural characteristics of EG (English sports group) are fairplay (sportsmanship) and personalism supported by the sport philosophy of the“Gentleman Ideal”. 3. The cultural characteristics of AG (American sports group) are sports enjoyable to watch, amusement, power, victory and obedience to the judge. 4. The cultural characteristics of JG (Japanese sports group) are“fights with real swords”, self-training, spiritual cultivation, and self-restraint. 5. Sports are divided into three groups by their cultural characteristics: a) sports which have inherited the national characteristics of each sport group, i. e., badminton, tennis, table tennis in EG, American football and baseball in AG, and in JG Judo, Karate, Kendo and Japanese archery: b) sports which have not inherited the national characteristics of any sport group and which have been internationalized such as track and field: c) and sports which have come to take national characteristics of two groups such as baseball.
The determinants of the persistence of involvement in what was discussed in a group are examined, focusing on the discussion process. An experimental procedure was developed to automatically measure several aspects of the process including interpersonal influence that was measured in terms of the changes of preference for alternatives that subjects showed following a short speech by another subject. The procedure used 27 four-person groups, 15 all-male and 12 all-female. The results showed that the amount of interpersonal influence a member gave the others, rapid move toward agreement, participation by speech, and discussion time elapsed contributed to determining the persistence of involvement over the month following discussion. Which of these variables was effective depended on gender and the extent of the persistence concerned. The method was considered instrumental in training to improve social skills for group problem solving, group decision making and other group work.
A survey of a large sample of Japanese industrial plant personnel is conducted in order to investigate the determinants of effective teamwork. Affinity relationship and multivariate analysis methods were used to identify the underlying determinants of teamwork. The relationships between such determinants for group leaders and their subordinates as a function of group size are analyzed. Teamwork determinants are classified into two categories, namely Task Oriented which relate to group productivity, and People Oriented which relate to group cohesiveness. In general group leaders perceived the latter category of determinants as being necessary for effective teamwork, while their subordinates believed that task oriented determinants were more important.