School regulations of 114 junior high schools were analyzed to investigate the nature of institutionalization in school. A coding system was developed which could classify a) regulations into task-relevant and task-irrelevant ones, b) situations and social relations prescribed in them, c) the degree of formalization and strictness, d) types of instructions (coercion, promotion, permission, dissuasion, and inhibition). The results indicated that a) schools had a median of 79.0 regulations of which those related to tasks numbered 19.8, and those not related numbering 55.0, b) in task-irrelevant rules, schools tried to control students' behavior in situations outside the school, and in social relations not directly concerned with school activities such as relations with peer group, family, and others, c) 48.5 rules were highly formalized an behaviors were prescribed in detail, d) many rules were coercive (45.0 regulations) and inhibitive ones (17.5) followed in number, while promotive (9.1), permissive (2.2), dissuasive (2.0) ones were relatively few. Categories which could indicate formalization were identified. The implication of the results for the institutionalization of educational organizations was discussed.
The purpose of this action research was to examine the effects of experimentally induced changes of teaching behavior on students' classroom adjustment. Sixteen teachers ranging from fourth to sixth grades and their students served as subjects. In a preexperimental session, all of these students were asked to rate the teaching behavior of their teachers toward them, and their own classroom adjustment. Thereafter, 9 classes were selected as an experimental group, and 7 classes as a control. At the beginning of the experimental session, each teacher in an experimental class was asked to increase his/her interactive teaching behavior toward those students who had rated their teachers' behavior toward them poorly. These induced attempts were continued for three weeks. Teachers in the control classes received no such experimental manipulation. In the post-experimental session, all of the students in the 16 classes were again asked to rate teaching behavior of their teachers toward them, and their own classroom adjustment. The results showed that the classroom adjustment scores of target students in the experimental group became more favorable due to the changes in teaching behavior.
The purpose of the present action research is to examine the effects of three types of persuasion-skills on improvement in attitude and behavior of elementary school children. The subjects were two hundred and fourteen fifth and sixth graders. They were divided into four groups, The one control and three experimental groups. The communicator, who was an ostensible elementary school teacher, presented all four groups a standard persuasive message that they should not call other children by nicknames which annoyed them. In addition to this message, each of the three experimental groups was given a different experimental manipulation. These three were: (a) presenting an episode in which a child had negative experience as a result of being called by his nickname, (b) showing acceptance and sympathy with the nicknamer's emotional background, and (c) requesting to commit not to calling others by nicknames. All of three experimental groups showed greater improvement in attitude and behavior than the control group.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the main and interactive effects of homeroom teachers' PM Leadership types on the class and individual pupil's levels on elementary school pupils' school morale. The data included ratings of 1018 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade pupils obtained from 31 classes at five elementary schools. These ratings were used to decide the teachers'leadership types on the class and individual pupil levels. The teachers were classified as PM-type if the average scores of the class and individual pupils exceeded the average P and M scores, pm-type if scores were below the average P and M scores, P-type if above the average scores only in P, and M-type if above the average scores only in M. The main results were: 1. The pupils' morale was the highest with the PM-type teachers at both the class and individual pupil levels, followed by the M-type and P-type teachers in this order, and the lowest effect being with the pm-type teachers. 2. Interactive effects on the class and individual levels were found only in the morale item“classroom solidarity”. The PM-, M-, and P-type pupils in the PM-type groups showed higher classroom solidarity and the P-and pm-type pupils in the M-, P-, and pm-type groups showed lower classroom solidarity. With the other morale items“will to learn”, “understanding of teacher instruction”, “happiness at schoo1”, and“total morale”, no significant interactive effects were found. In contrast, significant interactive effects were found in junior high school students concerning“classroom solidarity”, “will to learn”, and“total morale” (Sato, 1993).