This study reports on the results of three experiments investigating the modes of resolution as applied to inconsistent information. 90 subjects were given 11 terms of disposition which involved the discrepant dispositions. The task was to describe the impressions of stimulus person. The results showed it was confirmed that 80% of subjects described the person who had both discrepant dispositions. And 7 categories for modes of resolution as applied to inconsistent information were classified. Then it was shown that the estimations of the “logicalconsistency”, “reality of aperson image” and “person'smindset” weredifferent between groups of modes of resolution (I, II, III). In other words when we integrate inconsistent information in terms of more organaized mode, the estimation of the person's mindset was higher. Therefore it was suggested that there is a close relationship between the organized integration on the inconsistent information and the level of cognitive resolution.
This field study examined the changes of the psychological and physiological responses and performances of competitive archers during practices and actual matches. Five undergradurate Japanese archers participated in the free preparatory practices, the two- or three-round formal practices and the five-round matches. Subjects rated their somatic anxiety after each round of formal practice and match during which their heart rates were recorded continuously. Hitting performance data were obtained from practices' and matches' results. Results were analyzed using the intraindividual analysis which revealed that heart rates were remarkably elevated during matches and that the subjects showed higher somatic anxiety scores during matches than practices. Heart rate and somatic anxiety are moderately related to one another. There are curvilinear relationships between heart rate (somatic anxiety) and performance. The results and implications were discussed in the light of the multidimensional anxiety and the inverted-U relationship between anxiety and performance.
This study examined the moderating and mediating effects of emotional reaction and personal power on the relationship of leadership behavior with group morale and organizational commitment. The data were obtained from 289 workers at a steel factory and 425 nurses working at three hospitals. The main results were as follows: 1) Emotional reaction moderated the relationship between performance-oriented leadership behavior and group morale and commitment. 2) Personal power moderated the relationship between Pressure P and group morale and commitment. However, it did not have any moderating effects on the relationships between delegative leader behavior and group morale and commitment. 3) Personal power mediated the relationship between leadership behavior and group morale and commitment, its effects being more pronounced than that of emotional reaction. Finally, the moderator and mediator roles in the leadership process were discussed.
Perceived social support and relationship satisfaction of international students in Japan were examined. A total of 221 international students responded to a questionnaire composed of items that questioned the demographic characteristics of their network members, type of relationship, equity in relationship and satisfaction with relationship. Contact, relationship type and nationality of supporters were critical determinants of overall perceived social support, while relationship type, contact and equity were important for determining satisfaction in the relationship. On-campus relationships were important in academic support, while offcampus relationships played vital roles in both. This study revealed the importance of taking into consideration off-campus supporters in a study of international student adjustment.
The assessment of interpersonal communication competence in Japan has been traditionally done through translated versions of mainly Western-made scales, devised on the Western cultural definition of competence. A review of the more commonly used scales revealed that cultural bias in these translated scales has rendered them as having lower levels of concurrent validity. The purpose of this study was to devise a scale for assessing the communication skills that have been accepted as being more or less typical of Japanese. A 31-item scale, named the Japanese Interpersonal Competence Scale (JICS) was constructed and administered to 707 subjects of all age ranges to determine the structure of Japanese interpersonal communication competence. The factors of Perceptive Ability, Self-Restraint, Social Appropriateness, Interpersonal Sensitivity and Tolerance for Ambiguity were revealed. Validity and reliability tests showed that JICS is a promising instrument for the assessment of competence.
Amount of mutual eye contact, the time spent on gazing at each other, and speech were compared between fifteen cooperative and competitive pairs during performance of a computer bowling game. The cooperative pairs tended to look at their partners more often than did the competitive pairs. The prediction that the cooperative pairs would spend more time gazing at one another than the competitive pairs in this task situation was not supported. The frequency of individual gaze and mutual eye contact did not occur at equally high levels in competition compared with cooperation. The cooperative pairs spoke more than the competitive pairs.