THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Online ISSN : 1348-6276
Print ISSN : 0387-7973
ISSN-L : 0387-7973
Volume 60 , Issue 1
Showing 1-5 articles out of 5 articles from the selected issue
Original Articles
  • Chihori Tatebe, Takumi Miyamoto
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 1-17
    Published: 2020
    Released: August 20, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 03, 2020
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study describes the significant role played by PO (People’s Organizations) in disaster recovery in Medellin and Bantayan Island in the northern part of Cebu Province, the Philippines, which was hit by Typhoon Yolanda in 2013. In this area, although the damage caused by the disaster itself has been repaired to some extent, the fundamental problems of poverty and development have not changed since before the disaster. On the other hand, many PO have been created with the support of NGOs. The POs’ main concerns are people’s livelihoods and resistance to development, and their members are getting inspiration and pleasure through participating in PO activities. The support provided by governments, NGOs, and families is limited by political unfairness, sustainability, and problem-solving abilities. This study outlines the significance of PO as new actors that receive assistance, encourage independence among their members, suggest diverse solutions for their members’ problems, and give vitality to their members. Finally, it considers the role of organizations like PO in disaster recovery and alternative future societies from the viewpoint of “exchange theory”.

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  • Hiroaki Daimon, Tomohide Atsumi, Keishin Inaba, Wenjie Wang
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 18-36
    Published: 2020
    Released: August 20, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2020
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to clarify the key factors related to the organization of volunteers following the Kumamoto Earthquake of 2016. Semi-structured interviews and participant observations in Mashiki and Nishihara were used to compare two disaster-volunteer centers, both of which coordinated volunteers to meet survivors’ needs. The results showed that the centers were markedly different organizations. The command and control (C&C) model was used in Mashiki to avoid chaotic behavior by volunteers and survivors, whereas the improvisational and autonomous (I&A) model was used in Nishihara to solve a multitude of problems. Structural holes arose in Mashiki because of the disaster center’s C&C model, although Mashiki was the town that was most seriously damaged by the earthquake. It is unlikely that employing both organizational styles in Mashiki would have resulted in appropriate responses. The C&C model creates a vertical hierarchical organization, whereas the I&A model avoids such a hierarchy, producing a horizontal organization instead, which worked better in Nishihara. Thus, we conclude that after disasters it is necessary to prevent the emergence of the C&C model and leverage the I&A model instead, to prevent structural holes occurring.

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Short Article
  • Masayuki Kurokawa, Masaru Honjo, Koji Mishima
    Type: Short Article
    2020 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 37-49
    Published: 2020
    Released: August 20, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 14, 2020
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measuring smartphone-based internet addiction tendency. The subjects were 371 high school and technical college students who completed a self-reported online questionnaire (the Internet Addiction Tendency Scale). One hundred and thirty-four students completed the questionnaire twice, 1 month apart, and test-retest correlations were assessed. One hundred and nine students installed a smartphone application, which recorded their internet usage for approximately 2 weeks. The scale contained 38 items, which measured the tendency towards smartphone-based internet use addiction. Factor analysis revealed that the smartphone-based Internet Addiction Tendency Scale includes four subscales: an unsettled state of mind, regulation difficulties, smartphone incentives, and need for approval. The scale demonstrated good test-retest correlations. Students who used the internet for >600 minutes per day at the weekend reported higher scores for regulation difficulties and smartphone incentives than those who used the internet for <200 minutes. Smartphone-based internet addiction tendency also exhibited a significant positive correlation with subjective symptoms and depression. The scale displayed test-retest reliability and validity, and is a useful tool for measuring smartphone-based internet addiction tendency.

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Short Notes
  • Keita Suzuki, Tomoya Yoshino, Yukiko Muramoto
    Type: Short Note
    2020 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 50-55
    Published: 2020
    Released: August 20, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 03, 2020
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Although it is well known that implicit theories (beliefs regarding the malleability of human attributes) affect one’s motivation, less is known about how these effects manifest themselves in certain educational environments. This study investigated how implicit theories moderate the effects of selection systems, which are prevalent in educational settings, on individual effort. The results indicated that when entity theorists (people who think ability is fixed) who performed relatively well received negative feedback and were not selected, they exerted less effort compared with incremental theorists (people who think ability is malleable). The negative effects of selection systems on motivation might be amplified among entity theorists when they are faced with an undefeatable rival.

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  • Claudia Gherghel, Takeshi Hashimoto, Jiro Takai
    Type: Short Note
    2020 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 56-60
    Published: 2020
    Released: August 20, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2020
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Previous research suggests that individuals from interdependent cultures have more congruent views of agency and social obligations. This study aimed to confirm these findings by investigating the moderating effects of culture on the association between perceived social expectations regarding helping and affect. Japanese (n=164) and American (n=177) adults recalled a recent situation in which they helped someone and responded to a questionnaire regarding need satisfaction and affect. As expected, the Japanese subjects showed a stronger positive association between the perceived social expectation that they should help and positive affect than the Americans. For Japanese, the perceived social expectation that they should help increased satisfaction of the need for competence, leading to a more positive affect, while for Americans, the perceived social expectation that they should help reduced satisfaction of the need for autonomy, which in turn, reduced positive affect.

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