We examined the effect of dietary sea cucumber on hepatic regeneration in rat. Wistar rats were fed either a normal or an sea
cucumbers diet containing 1 or 5% dried sea cucumber for 5 days. The nutrients composition of the dried sea cucumber per 100 g
was moisture 8.3 g, crude protein 51.0 g, crude fat 1.9 g, carbohydrate 13.7 g, and ash 25.1 g, which contins salinity concentration
of 24.0%, respectevely. The amount of total free amino acid was 353.0 mg, including a large amount of tauline. After 70% partial
hepatectomy, we porformed biochemical analysis and histological analysis by using electric microscopy in the regenerating liver
in rats. The total protein content in liver of rats fed the sea cucumber diet was signifcanlty higher than that of normal diet. In
liver tissue observation, the acid phosphatase activity of the sea cucumber diet group was higher than that of the control group.
Moreover, the secondary lysosomes and lipid droplets as observed in the regeneratin liver was found in liver of rats fed the sea
cucumber diet. These results suggest that dietary sea cucumber improve hepatic regeneration in rat.
Cacao, persimmon, kaoliang, onion, tamarind and chicory colors are natural brown colorants which are so-called flavonoid type,
but the structures of their major coloring components remain unclear. Since they have similar coloring characteristics, it is difficult to
discriminate each other. In this paper, we develop discrimination analysis among the six colorants mentioned above and caramel color.
Test samples were provided from eight manufactures of their natural brown colorants and Japan Caramel Industrial Association.
The discrimination study was performed focusing on the following color reactions, UV measurements and detection of several
specific components containing the seven colorants: vanillin reagent reaction (qualitative analysis), HPLC-UV detection of
5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), GC-FID detection of 4-methylimidazol (4-Mel), UV absorbance of hydrolysate by hydrochloric
acid in butanol, HPLC-UV detection of theobromine, iron (II) sulfate reagent reaction (qualitative analysis), UV absorbance of
supernatant of 80% ethanol solution and detection of sulfer dioxide. The results revealed that combination of these eight tests
enable us to discriminate the seven colorants.
Chemical constituents in the bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge were determined. From the bulbs, N-(γ-glutamyl)-S-
(E-1-propenyl)-cysteine (Glu-PEC), trans-S-1-propenyl-cysteine (PEC), tryptophan, γ-glutamyl-tryptophan and γ-glutamylphenylalanine
were isolated and the chemical structures were identified by their NMR spectral data. Amongst them, Glu-PEC
showed the highest concentration (1.07 g / kg fresh weight) in the bulb. The metabolites pattern in the bulbs was compared with that
in the leaves by HPLC analysis. Some phenolic compounds such as allimacronoid A, tuberonoid A, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside
and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, which have been found in the leaves, were not detected in the bulbs.
We attempted to develop an evaluation model for protein digestion and absorption using the rat portal vein catheter placement
method. Sodium caseinate solution was continuously administered from a gastric catheter in rats into which catheters were placed
in the stomach and portal vein, and the digestive absorption of protein was measured based on the time course of changes in amino
acid concentrations in the portal vein as an index. When 5% sodium caseinate solution was continuously administered (11.25 mL/
kg/h) from the gastric catheter using a peristaltic pump, the portal blood concentrations of eight amino acids (glutamine, tyrosine,
methionine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and leucine) increased with time. Significant increases were observed
for these eight amino acids when compared with pre-administration values (0 minutes) up to 180 minutes after administration.
Therefore, the state of protein digestion and absorption can be observed using portal blood amino acid concentrations as indicators.
Green tea is reported to suppress protein absorption, and it was therefore investigated whether this inhibitory action could
be confirmed using this experimental model. A single administration of a 20% green tea extract (7.2 mL/kg) and continuously
administered 5% sodium caseinate solution to rats resulted in a significant inhibitory effect in the portal blood concentrations of
these eight amino acids.
These results confirm that the rat portal vein catheter placement method is useful as an experimental model for evaluating the
digestion and absorption of proteins.
A new system of functional foods, which was instituted by Consumer Affairs Agency, Government of Japan, has been put into
effect in April 2015. In this system, foods containing functional substances, whose functions for the human body are demonstrated
scientifically, are defined as “Foods with Function Claims”, and are allowed to be sold with the information about their functions.
Since the amount of functional substances affects the quality and safety of these functional foods, the manufacturers are obliged
to submit the accurate amount of functional substances in the foods with the analytical method. High performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) is usually adopted as the analytical method for the determination of functional substances because of its
high selectivity and quantitative capability.
Lutein, one of natural carotenoids, is reported to have effect to prevent human macula from damages causing by light, so that
lutein-containing Foods with Function Claims are sold with claiming the promotion of eye health. However, the reference material
of lutein is not available in the reagent markets so that its accurate amount is difficult to be determined by HPLC and might result
in leading to reduce the quality and safety of the Foods with Function Claims. In order to solve this problem, the contents of lutein
in Foods with Function Claims determined by HPLC and 1H qNMR methods were compared. As the result, the amount determined
by HPLC tended to be larger than that by 1H qNMR. One reason for this was that the absolute purity of lutein reagent was lower
than the purity, which was calculated using already-known absorption coefficient of lutein. For more accurate calculation of
purity of lutein reagent, the absorption coefficient of lutein was also determined by 1H qNMR method, revealing that absorption
coefficient of lutein was 2591, which was larger than known value.
Recovery of cyclamate(CY) by the Notified method from certain food sample was found extremely low. In the Notified method,
CY was extracted, derivatized and measured with LC-UV. LC-MS/MS measurement of the underivartized extract revealed that
CY was satisfactory extracted from these food samples. The low recovery was elucidated to be due to the co-extracted food
component, which may have reacted with the derivartizing reagent competitively with CY. Dialysis extracted, increase of the
derivatizing reagent volume, and decreasing sample amount for derivatization have dramatically improved recovery of the CY
from these samples. Recovery rate of cyclamate(CY) was compared and evaluated between two pretreatment methods: the method
using solvent extraction and dialysis method. It was measured by HPLC after derivatizing CY to N,N-dichlorocyclohexylamine.
The result of comparative study, CY in dried wasabi powder and reishi extract powder were satisfactory recovered by dialysis
method, but were not entirely recovered by solvent extraction method. The case of pine bark extract powder and chinese tea leaf,
CY was scarcely recovered with both methods. The elucidation of reason for difference in recovery between the two methods,
was attempted using the above mentioned samples. The result of investigation, it was discovered that the recoveries of all samples
increased with increasing concentration of hypochlorous acid in the reaction system. The information indicated that the organic
matter involved in sample solutions after pretreatment consumed hypochlorous acid prior to CY.