日本食品化学学会誌
Online ISSN : 2189-6445
Print ISSN : 1341-2094
ISSN-L : 1341-2094
4 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
論文・報文
  • 石丸 幹二, 田崎 茂徳, 田中 章江, 下村 講一郎, 山川 隆, 義平 邦利
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 4 巻 2 号 p. 85-88
    発行日: 1997/12/31
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    北米原産のハーブであるカナダサワギキョウについて、組織培養系を確立し、その二次代謝成分の分析を行った。市販の種子を常法により殺菌後、植物ホルモン無添加MS固形培地上に播種した。発芽した無菌植物体の根を切り取り、IAA 1mg/l添加1/2 MS液体培地で培養することにより不定根培養系を確立した。また、無菌植物体にAgrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834菌を感染させて毛状根を誘導し、2クローン(Ls-A1およびLs-A2)を4種(WP, RC, 1/2 MSおよびB5)の植物ホルモン無添加液体培地で培養した。Ls-A1およびLs-A2とも、各培地で良好に成育し、また、ポリアセチレン化合物、特にグルコース配糖体であるlobetyolinとlobetyolininを高含量で生産していた。特に、Ls-A2はB5培地において照明下培養すると、最高のlobetyolin含量を示した。また、Ls-A1およびLs-A2ともに照明下で培養するとchlorophyllを蓄積した。Ls-A1とLs-A2の生育とポリアセチレン類含量について、経時変化を調査したところ、共に培養後期において、乾燥重量とポリアセチレン類含量の減少が認められた。Ls-A2で認められたlobetyolin含量の最高値(6.17%、B5培地、6週目)は、過去調査したすべてのキキョウ科植物の組織培養体中、最高の値であった。今回の実験で、カナダサワギキョウの形質転換体(毛状根)の培養系の確立に初めて成功した。また、茎葉、不定根および毛状根培養系において生産される二次代謝物(ポリアセチレン配糖体)を明らかにするとともに、各種培養条件下におけるそれらの生産量について解析した。
  • 村上 慶枝, 久野 伯英, 池田 嘉宏, 石丸 幹二
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 4 巻 2 号 p. 89-92
    発行日: 1997/12/31
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Shoot, adventitious root and callus cultures of Ajuga reptans L. were established, and the production of three caffeic acid derivatives [rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA) and lithospermic acid B (LAB)] in the tissue cultures was investigated. A. reptans plantlets, cultured in vivo and in vitro, accumulated three polyphenols analyzed, although the contents were not so high (RA: 0.001-0.028%, LA: 0.036-0.106% and LAB: 0.002-0.031%, as dry weight). Higher productivity of LA compared to those of RA and LAB, found in A. reptans plantlets, was simiilar to ones which have been also observed in Salvia in Lamiaceae and Lithospermum and Heliotropium in Boraginaceae. Adventitious roots cultured in 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA produced high content (0.045% as dry weight) of LAB, which level was identical with those of the adventitious and hairy root cultures of Ocimum basilicum. The maximum RA content (0.008%, as dry weight) in A. reptans adventitious roots in the same medium was not so high, which level was almost 1/1000 of that of the adventitious and hairy root cultures of Ocimum basilicum and also 1/4 of that of the adventitious root cultures of Heliotropium pervianum. A. reptans calli cultured on 1/2 MS solid medium containing 1 mg/l 2,4-D produced large amount of RA (0.071% as dry weight), while the calli on 1/2 MS solid medium supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA-0.1mg/l BA, produced LA (0.113% as dry weight) as the major polyphenol. The level of the maximum RA content observed in A. reptans calli was almost 1/100 of that of Coleus blumei cells and also 1/10 of those of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and Salvia officinalis cell cultures. In this experiment. A. reptans was clarified to be a resource plant which produce caffeic acid derivatives (RA, LA and LAB), one of the important natural antioxidants. Tissue cultures of this plant, such as shoot, adventitious root and callus, also seemed to be suitable materials for biosynthetic study of these caffeic acid derivatives.
  • 高 智美, 矢田 朋子, 扇間 昌規, 伊藤 誉志男, 加藤 喜昭, 中村 幹雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 4 巻 2 号 p. 93-98
    発行日: 1997/12/31
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The composition of three commercial sucrose ester of fatty acid (SE) were analyzed by using TLC and GC. Each commercial SE, DK ESTER®SS, F-110 and F-10 were consist of mono-ester, mono-, di-, and tri-seter, and di- and tri-seter, respectively. The fatty acids of SE were stearic acid and palmitic acid and the ratio of sucrose/fatty acids of, DK ESTER®SS, F-110 and F-10 were 1/1, 1/1.7 and 1/2.5, respectively. New method for analysis of sucrose esters of fatty acid in food was established. The foods were extracted with ethylacetate (EtOAc)-tetrahydrofuran (THF) mixture (7:3). The extracts were further purified by using cartridge column (Sep-Pak® Diol: Waters) to remove the sucrose from foods, completely. The purified SE was hydrolyzed with 5% potassium hydroxide ethanolic solution with reflux for 40 min. Analysis of sucrose in hydrolyzate was performed on high performance ion-exchange chromatography equipped with pulsed amperometric detector (PAD) and refractive index detector (RI). The recoveries of SE from crackers, veinna sausage, and vanilla ice cream were 86.1%〜99.2%, respectively using PAD. The detection limit of sucrose using PAD was 4μg/g.
  • 萩原 昭裕, 河部 真弓, 田中 光, 小久保 百合子, 佐野 真士, 玉野 静光, 門田 忠臣, 中村 幹雄, 今井田 克己
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 4 巻 2 号 p. 99-106
    発行日: 1997/12/31
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    アカネ科セイヨウアカネ(Rubia tinctorum L.)の根より抽出される天然のアカネ色素(Madder color)のラット中期多臓器発癌性試験法による発癌性評価を実施した。6週齢のF344系雄ラット190匹を用い、複数の臓器に発癌イニシエーションを行う目的で実験開始時にN-nitrosodiethylamine (100mg/kg)を単回腹腔内投与し、N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (20mg/kg)を第1および2週に4回腹腔内投与し、N-bis (2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamineを0.1%の濃度で飲料水に混じて第3および4週に投与した(DMD処置)。DMD処置後、アカネ色素(サンエローAK)とアカネ色素製品(SRレッドRTM)(各々2.5%と5.0%)、非発癌性のキノン系色素であるコチニール色素製品(陰性対照物質)P. SAN RED No. 1 (5.0%)および陽性対照物質フェノバルビタール(0.05%)をそれぞれ混餌にて第5-20週の16週間投与した。DMD処置後、基礎食のみで飼育したものを対照群とした。全経過20週で屠殺剖検し、全身諸臓器を病理組織学的に検索した。肝臓については免疫組織学的に胎盤型glutathione S-transferase(GST-P)染色を施し、その陽性細胞巣を定量的に解析した。被験物質投与に起因すると考えられる死亡例や一般症例はみられず、体重にも影響を認めなかった。SRレッドRTMの5.0%投与群には、摂水量の高値傾向を認めた。DMD処置後にアカネ色素(サンエローAK)とアカネ色素製品(SRレッドRTM)を投与した各群の全身諸臓器に種々の過形成および腫瘍性病変を観察したが、いずれも対照群との間に有意な差はみられなかった。また、肝GST-P陽性細胞巣の定量値においても対照群と比較して差異を認めなかった。2種のアカネ色素サンエローAKとSRレッドRTMは、本試験法においていずれの臓器においても発癌促進作用を示さなかった。従って、アカネ色素には発癌促進作用ないし発癌性のないことが強く示唆された。
  • 山田 真記子, 加藤 喜昭, 中村 幹雄, 山田 隆, 米谷 民雄, 合田 幸広
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 4 巻 2 号 p. 107-113
    発行日: 1997/12/31
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A survey on the subsidiary colors (Fig. 1), raw materials, and their impurities (Fig. 2) in Food Red No. 2 (amaranth, R2) and Food Red No. 102 (new coccnin, R102) was conducted for the international harmonization regarding the specifications of coal-tar dyes. The analytical results of subsidiary colors in commercial R102 (10 samples of five manufactures) were 0.038〜0.823%, 0.060〜0.324%, 0.008〜0.169%, ND〜0.279%, and 0.07〜0.100%, for Sub A (trisodium salt of 7-hydroxy-8 (6-sulfonaphthyl-2-azo)-1,3-naphthalenedisulfonic acid), Sub B (disodium salt of 4-amino-3-(4-sulfonaphthyl-1-azo)-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid), P6R (pnceau 6R, tetrasodium salt of 7-hydroxy-8-(4-sulfonaphthylazo)-1,3,6-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid), R2, and FRE (fast red E, disodium salt of 6-hydroxy-5-(4-sulfonaphthylazo)-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid), respectively, as showed in Table 1. In one sample (A2), total content of subsidiary colors was 1% which was equal to limit valur of JECFA Specifications. The analytical results of materials and the impurities were 0.005〜0.044%, 0.052〜0.284%, 0.013〜0.196% for TS (trisodium salt of 7 hydroxy-1,3,6-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid), GS (G salt, disodium salt of 7 hydroxy-1,3-naphthalenedisulfonic acid), and NA (naphthionic acid, sodium salt of 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid), respectively, and RS (R salt, disodium salt of 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) and SS (Schaeffer's salt, sodium salt of 6-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid) were not detected, as showed in Table 2. All of the samples showed percentages lower than 5%, the maximum limit regulated by JECFA for materials and their impurities. The analytical results of subsidiary colors in commercial R2 (12 samples of two manufactures) were 0.015〜0.773%, 0.219〜1.064%, ND〜0.032%, 0.029〜0.050%, and 0.057〜0.661%, for Sub B, Sub C, P6R, R102, and FRE, respectively as showed in Table 1. THe analytical results of the materials and their impurities wre 0.011〜0.075%, ND〜0.007%, 0.004〜0.072%, 0.052〜0.147%, and ND〜0.011%, for TS, GS, RS, NA, and SS, respectively, as showed in Table 2. All the samples showed percentages that were lower than 3%, which was the maximum limit regulated by JECFA for subsidiary colors, and 0.5%, which was the maximum limit regulated for materials and their impurities. Since the contents of Sub A, Sub B, and Sub C were higher than those of known subsidiary (P6R, FRE, R2 and R102) colors in some cases, it seemed necessary to specify also Sub A, Sub B, and Sub C, which were clarified in the previous report, on evaluating the specifications.
  • 古谷 力, 松浦 洋一, 溝端 聡, 高原 純夫, 高橋 和久
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 4 巻 2 号 p. 114-119
    発行日: 1997/12/31
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to screen for natural antimicrobial compounds, we carried out halo tests using filter paper disks against ten species of microorganisms at 500mg/ml of extracts obtained from about two hundred plants. Although most extracts were effective against bacteria, the methanol extract of Mosla chinensis Maxim. (Hosoba-yamajiso in Japanese. Labiatae) proved highly inhibitory against not only bacteria but also yeast and fungi (Table 1). Partitioning between H2O and three successive solvents, hexane, CHCl3 and EtOAc, and MIC testing against twenty-three species of microorganisms revealed the hexane fraction to exhibit the strongest antimicrobial activity. That is, the MIC values with this fraction were found at the lowest concentration and comparison of the diameter of zone inhibition at the same concentration, demonstrated the hexane fraction to exert the greatest effects against almost all species of microorganisms. Plants of Labiatae, especially such as Thymus, Origanum and Satureja used as spices and food additives, contain essential oils, whose constituents such as thymol, carvacrol and eugenol are known to posess antimicrobial activity. A comparison of antimicrobial activities using the MIC test showed that the methanol extract of M. chinensis was more inhibitory against all soecies of microorganisms than that of Th. vulgaris. In addition, thymol exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities, similar to these for M. chinensis (Table 2). Hexane fractions from the leaves, stems, flowers and roots of M. chinensis collected during June to August, were analyzed by GLC in order to determine their volatile constituents, and thymol was detected in all fractions. The content of thymol in leaves, 4.43-13.03% was overwhelmingly higher than in other parts, and maximum levels were observed in leaves collected in August (Table 3). Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of extracts determined by MIC testing were proportional to the tymol content. In conclusion, constituents of the hexane fraction containing essential oils, are the main factors responsible for antimicrobial activity of M. chinensis. The results further suggest the participation of thymol in inhibitory effects against microorganisms.
  • 佐藤 恭子, 永山 暢子, 坂元(佐々木) 史歩, 米谷 民雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 4 巻 2 号 p. 120-125
    発行日: 1997/12/31
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    高速液体クロマトグラフィー(HPLC)を用いて市販ビートレッド9製品及びビート(Beta vulgaris LINNE)根水抽出液について、色素成分の分析を行った。市販色素及びビート根水抽出液の主色素成分はベタニンとイソベタニンであり、ベタニジンとイソベタニジンは検出されなかった。ビート根水抽出液のベタニンとイソベタニンの含量比は4:1であったが、市販色素では、すべてほぼ1:1であった。ベタニンとイソベタニンの含量和をJECFA規格の赤色色素含量値と比べたところ、含量和(0.12〜0.65%)は赤色色素含量(0.14〜0.70%)の67〜95%に相当した。ベタニン溶液の加熱実験により、ベタニン脱炭酸体と考えられる化合物及びいくつかの黄色分解物が生成した。ベタニン脱炭素体と考えられる化合物は加熱処理したビートレッド試薬溶液においても検出された。また、市販色素製品の中には、ベタニン脱炭酸体を含むものがあった。
  • 中島 良子, 桑原 綾子, 渡辺 純也, 田村 三樹夫, 及川 紀久雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 4 巻 2 号 p. 126-132
    発行日: 1997/12/31
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated the formation of organochlorine compounds which occurred during the disinfection of cooking tools with sodium hypochlorite. Analysis method added to heat space method for volatile organic compounds such as trihalomethane, and the solvent extract method for middle volatile organic compounds by GC/MS. Usually a sodium hypochlorite solution of around 100-400mg/l was used for disinfection of cooking tools. Chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform were detected in each concentration of 100, 400, 1000mg/l respectively. Total trihalomethane increased in proportion to the concentration of sodium hypochlorite. And 1,1-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, chloromethane, vinylchlorade were confirmed too. Furthermore the possibility that middle volatile or nonvolatile organoclorine compounds formation is suggested.
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