In mental clinics, bromide agents such as potassium bromide were often once used as therapeutic drugs to treat psychiatric disorders. They were also given as hypnotic, sedative and antiepileptic medicines. However, the appearance of new medicines has resulted in them not being used for these purposes in recent years.
Potassium bromide is still continuously listed in today's JP and BP. This suggests that it maintains value as a basic medicine for treating mental disorders in the history of psychotropic medicines. However, regarding the standards and test methods for potassium bromide in the present JP, as a result of a comparison between the USP of the same age, BP and EP, a gap is seen, and this is very regrettable.
The exchange of art and scientific information related to medical sciences with foreign countries is becoming more active today. Therefore, scholarly information overseas should be collected and reflected in the standards and test methods for potassium bromide adopted in the JP of Japan. The author believes that the standards and test methods comparable to those at the international level should introduced.
On the other hand, potassium bromide was recently relisted by USP29 (2006) for the first time in approximately 50 years. Moreover, instrumental analysis was introduced as part of the test methods in BP2013; that is, an epoch-making revision was made in terms of test methods. It is assumed from this that there is a sign of new change regarding the existence of potassium bromide as hypnotic, sedative and antiepileptic medicines, and its utility value. It is believed that the sign of change in view of the utility value and pharmacological evaluation probably arose with the new clinical knowledge that potassium bromide was used to treat a baby seriously ill with myoclony epilepsy, as well as to treat a dog with epilepsy.
PMID: 26427096 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Yagen is an oriental grinder for crude plant medicines. It consists of a disk and navicular mortar.
A Chinese yagen with the inscription, Product of the Ming-Zhengde Period，(1506～1521 A.D.) has been housed for 40 years in the Naito Memorial Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry (Kakamigahara, Gifu Prefecture, Japan). To identify the district that produced this yagen, the authors analyzed the elements using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.
The results showed that the blue design and blue Chinese characters on the yagen were enameled with elements of cobalt, manganese, and iron. Therefore, it is believed that the yagen was made in an old porcelain kiln near Zhangzhou in Fujian Province, China.
However, as the period of production could not determined in the present study, further research is needed in the future.
PMID: 26427097 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
In China, the crude drug licorice (kanzo in Japanese, gancao in Chinese) has been used both dried and roasted as the situation demands from ancient times. The meaning of roasted licorice is simply roasted and honey-roasted in ancient and modern times, respectively. However, it is not clear medicinal purposes of processed licorice or why licorice processed with honey began to be used. We researched ancient literature and found that the main objective of roasting was to change the property of licorice from cool to warm (i.e., dried licorice had the effect of draining fire), while roasted licorice was used as an energy supplement, having a digestive effect and thus warming the body. Meanwhile, doctors began using honey-roasted licorice to treat throat pain from the Song dynasty, and then at the end of the Qing dynasty, honey-roasted licorice was expected to have the same effects of roasted licorice (i.e., supplementing energy and having a digestive effect).
PMID: 26427098 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
In India, since ancient times Tri-phala (meaning three fruits in Sanskrit) has been considered to be a combination of the following fruits: -Haritaki (Terminalia chebula, Retz.), Amalaka (Embelica officinalis Gaertn), and Vibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.). These plants are also listed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Haritaki and Amalaka have also been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times in Japan under the Japanese names of Kariroku and Annmaroku, respectively. Both have been carefully preserved as treasured drugs in the nationally important Shosoin treasure storehouse.
This study attempts to clarify the description of Tri-phala in the Navanitaka, which is the second part of the Bower Manuscript (Bower Ms.), and examines the reasons why these plants were combined. This paper begins with a summary description of Tri-phala in the context of traditional Asian medicine, followed by the delineation of drug selection principles in Ayurveda. Tri-phala formulas in the N?van?taka are then examined.
The Carakasamhita (CS) treats Tri-phala as a purifier and tonic (rasayana), describing it as a formula for rejuvenation and longevity. On the other hand, the Susrutasamhita (SS) regards Tri-phala as having the efficacy of balancing kapha (phlegm) and pitta (bile), and also as being a medicine to promote excretion and enhance digestive functions for better nutritional intake. It is described to have an effect of curing diseases by keeping the tridhau (theree element) valance. Tri-phala is thus used as an ingredient of laxatives for diseases that result from kapha imbalance and tonic. The Astangahrdayasamhita (AHS) considers Tri-phala to have a particular superiority among cure-all medicines with the power to dispel illness. It controls kapha and overcomes blood diseases. Tri-phala formulas found in the Navanitaka were prescribed for the treatment of abdominal tumors induced by vayu (wind) disorder as well as for coughs caused by pitta and kapha disorder.
Tri-phala was also administered to facilitate nutrient absorption, regulate bowel function, and promote excretion. Tri-phala thus restores the balance of tridhau by facilitating water distribution in the body. For these reasons, the optimal combination of Tri-phala was then established to adjust kapha for most efficient purification effects.
PMID: 26427099 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the What, How and Why format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.
PMID: 26427100 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
The original formulation for Tusujiu, which Japanese people still consume on the morning of January 1st, was created by Hua Tuo, but has not been studied in detail. The book Huatuo Shenyi Bizhuan, found in 1918, describes a concoction, Biyijiu, that shows great similarity to the current Tusujiu; the ingredients for Biyijiu being rhubarb, atractylodes rhizome, cinnamon bark, platycodon root, zanthoxylum fruit, processed aconite root and smilax rhizome. The procedures for preparing and drinking it are to pound the ingredients and then put them into a silk bag dyed with madder. During the daytime of the last day of the year, hang the bag in a well to soften the powder. Take the bag out early in the morning of the next day, the first day of the year. Heat the bag in fermented liquor until simmering. Drink the liquid with all family members, doing so while facing east. If one person drinks it, there will be no disease in the family. If the whole family drinks it, there will be no disease in their neighborhood in an area of one square li. In this study, to determine the original formulation for Tusujiu, we examined a number of ancient medical texts from the 3rd to the 13th century that discuss Biyijiu and Tusujiu. As a result, we concluded that Biyijiu is likely to be the original formulation developed by Hua Tuo.
PMID: 26427101 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
In the 1870s, various provisions existed regarding pharmacists working at Japanese military hospitals. And in the decade of the 1880s, some hospitals in Tokyo and Oita implemented them. These provisions gave pharmacists the right to challenge doctors' prescriptions and provide patients with medicine-related information. In Oita Prefecture, patients could have their prescriptions filled outside of the hospital. This paper examines the case of one scholar of pharmacology who worked in Oita Medical School Hospital.
PMID: 26427102 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
INUBUSHI SEIYAKU, a Japanese pharmaceutical company established in 1807, manufactures KEISHIN-TAN. This is an original drug developed by the company, and consists of 14 exotic natural medicines, spikenard, oriental bezoar, musk, agarwood, etc. It has been used for adjusting the autonomic nervous system and physical conditions. We studied the original methods of the traditional quality management techniques handed down within INUBUSHI SEIYAKU in selecting the appropriate spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis) for medicinal use. Currently, spikenards are mainly used as incense rather than medicine. KEISHIN-TAN is a rare case in that the bulk powder of the spikenards is used for pharmaceutical products in Japan. We examined the morphological characteristics and made an analysis of the component of spikenards selected by traditional methods. The raw material of the spikenards was purchased from the Japanese market, and was classified into two categories-superior, fit for medicinal use and defective, to be discarded-by traditional methods of INUBUSHI SEIYAKU. The methods of the characterization of the spikenard by INUBUSHI SEIYAKU were investigated. As a result, only thick spikenard roots over 2.0 cm in length and approximately 0.5 cm in diameter were found to be used, and the total weight of the superior was only 15% of the raw material. By comparing the weights of hexane extracts and GC-MS analyses, the content of calarene--main sedative compound in spikenards--in the superior material was 2.8 times higher than the raw material and 4.3 times higher than the defective material. The ways to devise how to enhance the pharmacological effects of spikenards may be contained in this method. These results revealed the traditional spikenard selection criteria, and may show the indications of using spikenard or its compounds for medicinal purposes.
PMID: 26427103 [Indexed for MEDLINE]