Established in 1870, the Heiandoo Pharmacy celebrates its 147th anniversary this year. Dr. Tootaroo Simizu became the successor of Heiandoo Pharmacy from its previous owner in 1912. He has been described as a person who devoted his entire life to pursuit of pharmacology in the positions of a multi-linguist pharmaceutical scholar, a pharmacist and a pharmacy owner.
From the age of 16, he entered the career path of pharmacology. In almost self-taught research, he advanced research covering pharmacology, from traditional medicines to new drugs.
He carefully excavated, collected and preserved numerous materials and work on research, including approximately 5,000 books that are stored in Naito Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry in Gifu Prefecture. The contents range from pharmaceutical history, pharmacopoeia, pharmacology to pharmacology languages such as pharmacology Latin, traditional medicines (kampo), and pharmacy business management.
He published the magazine Pharmacy in order to give pharmacists useful information on the knowledge of pharmacology, pharmacy, and management of pharmacy stores. He has been involved in medicine education for 40 years at Toho University and 16 years as the chairman of the Pharmacists' Association of Professional Organizations and other institutions.
He gained much trust from the members during his term in 1951 and obtained a Doctorate Degree of Pharmacology, received a meritorious metal from the Japanese Government, and was a member of the International Society for the History of Pharmacy.
He has left the following words for pharmacists and professional organizations: Try pharmacy first, which means to please inform people the important and useful role of pharmacy in everyday life. His personality and social activities he was engaged in are also introduced.
Professor Shoji Shibata was born on October 23, 1915 and lived a long natural life, passing away on July 12, 2016 at the age of 100. The Japan Academy sent a telegram to the memorial of the former Academy member.
Shoji Shibata retired from Tokyo University and Meiji Pharmaceutical University where he worked as a professor for 10 years. His main interests was educational research. He often played tennis with students and faculty staff. He was involved in the Shosoin drug study and was a teacher of Okuyama.
The first scientific survey of Shosoin drugs was performed in 1948-1949, immediately following Word War II after being proposed by the Imperial Household Agency to a team of scientists lead by Yasuhiko Asahina, Professor Emeritus of the University of Tokyo. Shoji Shibata, associate professor with University of Tokyo at the time, participated as one of the team members.
An enormous amount of information on chemical and pharmacological knowledge of traditional Chinese medicines has been accumulated over the past 50 years. The second scientific survey of Shosoin drugs was proposed by the Shosoin office of the Imperial Household Agency, and carried out from 1994 to 1995, renewing the research project under Shoji Shibata (Chief M.J.A., and Prof. Emeritus, University of Tokyo).
The first part of the Bower Manuscript is called the Lasuna-kalpa because it describes medical formulations that include garlic, or lasuna in Sanskrit, which is believed to refer to Allium sativum L. The aim of this study is to reinterpret the descriptions of garlic in the Lasuna-kalpa and to examine its pharmaceutical contents. This paper begins with a general discussion on ingesting garlic, which was both a religious taboo and a medical treatment in ancient India. Three major medical works-The Caraka-samhita (CS), the Susruta-samhita (SS) and the Astangahrdaya-samhita (AHS)─are then revisited in respect to their description of garlic in order to highlight its medicinal properties. In light of this examination, the specific formulations described in the La?una-kalpa are analyzed from a modern pharmaceutical perspective paying due attention to the second half of the Lasuna-kalpa. The scripture of Brahmanism prohibits the Brahmans from eating garlic because of garlic's growth environment, which was seen as impure, and the behavioral code for the Brahmans renders garlic unclean for them. Some Buddhist scriptures also discourage eating garlic because its smell is considered unspiritual for priests and lay devotees alike. Eating garlic was regarded as an unspiritual act both in- and outside the religious organization. Despite these negative social and religious norms, Brahmanism and Buddhism admitted using garlic for medical purposes. Thus, in ancient India, garlic was given dual attributes of religious taboo and medical utility. Garlic is mentioned in CS for treatments of various diseases, in SS in a diet therapy for the gynecology system, and in AHS for rejuvenation. Garlic decreases vata (air) and kapha (phlegm), while it increases pitta (bile). The Lasuna-kalpa apparently consists of two parts, the first of which describes eight formulations of garlic. Since the second part does not explicitly mention garlic, it can be conjectured that the second part is a later addition in the process of transmission.
Thirty-eight alkaloid drugs originating from amino acid have been launched between the 1940s and 2010s in Japan.
Of those, 20 were natural alkaloid drugs and 17 were semi-synthetic alkaloid drugs. Most them were developed leading into the 1960s. They were classified as narcotic drugs, cardiovascular agents, central nerve system agents, and so on. The market for amino acid-based alkaloid drugs was not large compared to that for other synthetic drugs. The reasons for this were considered to be, 1) the drug receptor is limited, 2) difficulty in realizing a higher efficacy while reducing side effects, and 3) the difficulty of providing a stable supply of the materials required from natural products.
The first edition of Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP), which is a normative public document containing specifications and standards on pharmaceutical quality and standard test methods, was promulgated in June 1886. After being published, it continued to be revised to include the latest scientific knowledge of that era. In March 2016, the 17th revised Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP17) was introduced and promulgated. In September 2016, to mark the 130th anniversary of the establishment of JP, as well as publication of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 17th edition, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 130th Anniversary Symposium - Challenges for the future- was held in Tokyo, hosted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and the
Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency.
In this article, we review the past history and background of Japanese Pharmacopoeia, and describe the contents and results of the 130th Anniversary Symposium. In addition, we explain the Five Pillars for Revision described in the basic policies for preparation of the next major revised edition, JP18, and also consider future issues required for formulating JP18.
A wooden license engraved with the characters Saiyakuka, signifying the use of medicinal herbs, was found at the Iwami-Ginzan Silver Mine in Omori Town, Shimane Prefecture. It was registered as industrial heritage of world heritage in 2007. The license was appropriated by a magistrate’s office for the purpose of allowing residents in the area to collect the medicinal herbs that grew wild and in abundance at the foot of Mt. Sanbe. Its contents shows that the magistrate’s office supported the needy circumstances of residents, whose livelihood was selling medicinal herbs it to medicinal wholesale dealers of Osaka. The chief administrator, Masunosuke Yashiro, confirmed the license following an investigation and entrusted management of the business management to Koun Nakamura, a botanist. There is no record regarding the results, but the wooden license is specific evidence, and is worthy of attention as a document that details arrangements were made at that time. Regional cultivation focusing on medicinal herbs has also been attempted various places in modern times, but this find seems to present a pioneering project as a community-based cultivation project in that tangible procedures for preparation were taken.