The Naito Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry was established in 1971 by Toyoji Naito, founder of the pharmaceutical manufacturer Eisai Co., Ltd. and the Naito Foundation. Mr. Naito decided to establish the museum after observing that Japan has no equivalent of the comprehensive pharmaceutical museums found in Europe and America. If this situation continues, precious artifacts illustrating the development of pharmaceutical science and the pharmaceutical industry will be lost, and that is something future generations will regret. Visited by approximately 40,000 people each year, the museum has received more than 1.6 million visitors to date. Its collection includes 65,000 artifacts and 62,000 books.
Focusing on collecting items that would otherwise be lost, the museum has prioritized making them conveniently accessible to the public via its permanent exhibition, special exhibitions, a website and a library.
Currently the museum faces several challenges. Its database of books and artifacts is inadequate for present needs because the files, research results, and other items logged in it are not linked to each other, and the storeroom housing three-dimensional artifacts is not properly equipped. The most serious challenge is that, although recent years have seen special exhibitions on cancer, dementia, infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases) and new drug development, legal restrictions and the status of the company facilities prevent the museum from collecting and exhibiting the excellent pharmaceutical products made by other companies.
The museum is working to resolve these challenges, but it is short of staff and equipment. Everyone who visits the museum or uses its books and artifacts helps bring a solution nearer.To ensure its availability to generations 100 or 200 years from now, the museum will continue to cultivate a pharmaceutical culture by disseminating the riches of its collection and providing information to its many users.
This paper focuses on the activities of the Sendai Pharmaceutical Guild during the Edo Period, clarifying the production and distribution of Japanese crude drugs in local cultivation areas, and discussing the role of local merchant groups in this process.
It is thought that local cultivation areas played an important role in the manufacturing of Japanese crude drugs, although there are few historical discussions of economics about the production and distribution in these areas. Therefore, this paper discusses the activities of a merchants' group in handling Sendai crude drugs through a case study.
In view of the above discussions, this paper has clarified that the process of crude drug cultivation expanded in Sendai Han, and that the changes in distribution verify Sendai Han as an important local cultivation area. In this case study, the contribution of Sendai Pharmaceutical Guild in propelling the production of domestic crude drugs from the late 17th Century to mid-18th Century is also seen, while negative effects of the local merchants group could be seen beginning from the late 18th Century.
Located in Omori-machi, Oda-shi, Shimane Prefecture, the Iwami-Ginzan Silver Mine was registered as an industrial heritage site and World Heritage site in 2007. A reddish-brown mineral soil found there at the beginning of the 17th century was donated to the Shogunate as a medicinal stone called MUMYOUI. The main component of the soil was believed to be ferric oxide, but it has been elucidated that the main component is manganese dioxide. It is similar to a mineral mined in China and described in HonzoKoumoku. While the minerals are listed as having the same name, MUMYOUI, they have different properties. The reason why the two minerals were confused by being referred to with similar notations at that time is unclear. Iwami-Ginzan halted presentation of MUMYOUI to the Shogunate once in the mid-18th century and began selling it to the general public shortly afterwards. In this thesis, I
introduce the appearance of MUMYOUI from Iwami-Ginzan in functional books where it was treated as a noble medicine by the public, and used and transmitted until the end of the Tokugawa Period. In addition, it was found that the medicinal products produced in the region were developed and sold by a chief administrator, resembling processes like a modern pharmaceutical company and introduced as if the business was a community-raising project.
Department of Pharmacy, Tokyo-Kaido Hospital
Shohei Ninomiya is well known as the first modern European-style Medical Representative (MR) in Japan, but he also worked from 1905 to 1911 as the head pharmacist at Sugamo Hospital, the first modern psychiatric hospital in Japan. Though there were few psychiatric medicines in the Meiji period (1868-1912), Ninomiya engaged in clinical pharmaceutical activities at Sugamo Hospital. They include (1) giving psychiatric hospital information to pharmacists, pharmaceutical societies, and the general public; (2) lecturing on pharmaceutical science to nurses and publishing a nursing textbook with the director of nursing at the hospital; (3) providing information on psychiatric medicines in pharmaceutical bulletins; and (4) participating in events organized by the hospital such as psychiatric society meetings and the hospital foundation day celebration.
There were no effective medicines for psychiatric treatments in those days. Nonetheless, Ninomiya found a raison-d’etre for pharmacists at psychiatric hospitals as providers of pharmaceutical information.
In 1911, he resigned from the hospital and began working as an MR at Hoffman La Roche Japan.
Needless to say there are many types of hot springs utilized all over the world. This paper pays attention to the hot springs of importance for the maintenance of people’s health since the Edo era (the 17-19th century AD) in Beppu, Oita Prefecture, Japan. Based on documents during the Edo era, it is thought that people in those days made the best of the spas in Beppu for the prevention and treatment of parasitic, infectious and cutaneous diseases as well as cleansing and relaxation of their body. The hot spring water in the sea side areas such as Hamawaki spa area was expected to be useful not only for their daily bathing but also for the care of ocular diseases. On the other hand, the spas in the mountainous areas such as Myoban area in Beppu City, with high concentrations of sulfur, were utilized for the treatment of cutaneous and infectious diseases. Vegetables soaked in the springs in Myoban and Kannawa areas far from the sea area or those treated with the hot spring steam there are expected to be free from infectious agents. It is presumed that the boiling water would result in the sterilization and disinfection of parasitic eggs and larvae on them. This kind of preventive way is probably found at other hot spa sites in and out of Japan.
As a similar herbal medicine to Angelica Acutilobae Root, there is the Angelic Archangelica Root in Europe. Regarding Angelica Archangelica Root, it disappeared from foreign pharmacopoeia with the inclusion of DABVIIeast (1964). However, in recent years, in foreign pharmacopoeia, Angelica Archangelica
Root was again listed in EP beginning with EP4.0 (2002). In compliance with this, it was also listed in BP from BP2002. In regards to the reasoning for this, it is possible that the Angelica Archangelica Root may have been reevaluated in Europe. After that, other herbal medicines of the Angelica genus were also listed in EP and BP. Today, in EP and BP, there are four kinds of Angelica genus herbal medicines: Angelica Archangelica Root, Angelica Dahurica Root, Angelica Pubescens Root, and Angelica Sinensis Root.
This time, research was conducted on the standards of and test methods for Angelica Archange Root,Angelica Dahurica Root, Angelica Pubescens Root, and Angelica Sinensis Root in EP4.0 (2002)～EP9.0 (2017) and BP2002～BP2018. For the four standards and test methods, the formats described and test methods, such as identification test, purity test, quantitative analysis, etc., are unified. This clearly revealed the morphological and chemical characteristics of each. Thin-layer chromatography was used for the identification and purity tests. The reference solution used was unified into three kinds : Z-ligustilide, osthole, and imperatorin. For this reason, the test results clearly show the differences between the characteristic ingredients in each variety. For quantitative analysis, Angelica Archangelica Root requires calculation of the essential oil content. Other than that, the components identified were quantified by liquid chromatography to calculate their content. Angelica Dahurica Root is required for imperatorin, Angelica Pubescens Root for osthole, and Angelica Sinensis Root for E-ferulic acid content. It is suggested that these ingredient contents are the chemical quality evaluation criteria that influence the quality and medicinal efficacy of herbal medicines. It was interesting to seek calculation of the content of E-ferulic acid through a quantitative analysis of Angelica Sinensis Root. Ferulic acid has various actions such as the ability to digest active oxygen, and a wide range of health effects could be seen. It was also reported that ferulic acid has an inhibitory effect on the progression of Alzheimer’s dementia. Therefore, regarding Angelica Acutilobae Root and Angelica Sinensis Root, it is considered that there was a significant change in value as the result of evaluating quality by obtaining the ferulic acid content.