In 52 species of Japanese bony fishes (Table 1), the horizontal septum was found to be separated into two tendons, and these tendons were here called anterior oblique tendon and posterior oblique tendon respectively. The d: stal end of each tendon, in the form of connective tissue attaches to the superficial red muscles in the teleosts other than the scombers and tunas. (Fig. 1 and 5).However, in the scombroid fishes examined here, the end of the tendon reaches the deep: seated red muscles with a simiiar patern as in other bony fishes. The two tendons are running (Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7) with a loose mechanism so as to make the two tendons slide with each other. This is especialy significant in scomboroid fishes. The Superficial red muscles runs horizontally along the horizontal septum in non-scombroid teleosts, on the other hand, the same muscles of scmbroids, though homologus with those in the former referring to the position and the direction, was found to be light in color as other non-red-muscles. It has been known that the red-muscle fibres are thinner than those of ordinary muscles in bony fishes. The writer's histlogical examination, however, showed that the superficial muscles noted above in scombroids are consisted of thick fibres same as those of ordinary muscles. This change found in the scombroids, however, do not take place in the same degree in this particular group of fish. The differentiation occurs gradually (Fig. 8) in the order of Scomber-Sardai-Thunnus-Katsuwonus The three facts clarified here (1. structure of tendons, 2. histology of the superficial muscles, and 3. sliding mechanism of two tendons) convinced the writer to believe that the deep seated red muscles in scombroid fishes derived from the superficial red muscles in ordinary bony fishes, and the former red muscles sunk from the body surface to the inner part of body accompanied also by function as red-muscle. Such anatomical deformation in scombroid teleosts tested here seems to have developed adapting to their speedy moving by beating of the tail.
We have studied about the influence of colors on the behavior of young marine fish to know the relation between the light and fish which is essential to the knowledge of the fish gathering lamp. 1. As the results of our experiments, it was found that there are two fish groups, A and B, their reactions to light being quite different; among the eight lights (including white), green and blue bring forth the greatest fish gathering rates, for Oplegnathus, Monaeanthus, Cybium, Spheroides and Sphyraena (of the former group). 2. It becomes evident that the light. chasing tendency of A-group fish are due not to the energy of light but rather to the wave length of light. 3. A-group fish can be classified into two different sub-groups, one scarcely has any light-chasing tendency for white light, (as in Cybium and Sphyraena), and the others has fairly strong chasing tendencies (as in Spheroides). 4. Considering the fish-gathering rates for white light as a standard, Anguilla, which belongs to B-group, shows almost no reaction to blue, green, indigo and yellow, but shows distinct light-chasing tendency for violet and red.
Among the fine fish specimens in the Biological Laboratory, Imperial Household, which the present writer examined during summer, 1948-summer, 1949, through the courtesy of Dr. K. Hattori, Mr. T. Saito and Mr. H. Tsujirnura, were found several species belonging to the family Liparidae. In this paper is treated of one of these species as it is believed to be unnamed. The writer wishes to express here his thanks to those biologists of the Biological Laboratory, Imperial Household, mentioned above by name for their kindness in giving him the privilege of examining and reporting upon the valuable fish specimens in the Laboratory.
The genus Lyconectes belonging to the family Cryptacanthodiidae was erected by Ch. H. Gilbert in 1893 based on only one northern Pacific species, Lyconectes aleutensis. Recently two specimens of the genus were secured by the present writers, separately from off the coasts of Kushiro and Abuta in Hokkaido, 1949. They seem to belong to a species, probably new to science. The writers :wish to express their gratitude to Prof. Dr. Tohru Uchida, Hokkaido University, for his kindness extended to them in various ways.