Notes. Many systematists during the past century erroneously regarded this species to be homologous with S. sirm, undoubtedly because the body shapes of the two species are very much similar. However, S. leiogaster is definitely different from S. sirm in having a shorter maxillary like that of S. clupeoides, in having the dorsal inserted midway between the tip of snout and the upper end of caudal base, in having a lower number of gill rakers, and in lacking a series of dark-blue rounded spots along the dorsolateral part of the body. Distribution. Sardinella leiogaster occurs in the tropical Indo-Pacific waters. It has been reported from the Red Sea in the west, to the Philippines in the east; and from the coasts of the Asian Continent in the north to the shores of the Celebes in the south.
During the past two years in the course of the fishery survey programs conducted by the Fisheries Research Station of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department (f ormerly known as the Co-operative Development & Fisheries Department) of the Hong Kong Government, the RV/Cape St. Mary has fished the Continental Shelf in the northern part of the South China Sea. In addition to the numerous trawl hauls made in shallow grounds where commercial fish species occur, a series of “deep” stations have been made with AGASSIZ nets. During Cruise 1/64 early in 1964, a number of deep-sea fishes were collected off the edge of the Continental Shelf in depths from 314 to 530 fathoms. Among these fishes is an anacanthobatid skate, which has been confirmed as a new species of the currently monotypic genus Springeria BIGELOW and SCHROEDER (1951). With the discovery of this new skate, the family Anacanthobatidae is now represented by two genera and five species, and its distribution has become world-wide. To facilitate comparison the present species is described following the plan and sequence of presentation of proportional and descriptive characters used in BIGELOW and SCHROEDER (1951), Methods of taking measurements have also been adopted from these authors.
In November, 1964, the research vessel Cape St. Mary of the Fisheries Research Station, Hong Kong, made her seventh cruise of the year to the coast of Sarawak, Borneo. During this cruise, a series of AGASSIZ trawl-hauls were taken from deep waters. At Station 32, which was about 270 miles north of Kuching, Sarawak, 19 fish species were collected from depths of 456 to 450 fathoms. Among these fishes, a new skate of the genus Anacanthobatis has been identified. The following account of this skate is the first record of Anacanthobatis, as well as the second record of the Anacanthobatidae, from the South China Sea. According to BIGELOW and SCHRODER (1962), Anacanthobatis is distinguished from Springeria, the other genus of the family, by the absence of the leaf-like expansion at the tip of the snout. It is known only by three species: A. marmoratus VON BONDE and SWART, 1924, from Durban, Natal, and A. americanus and A. longirostris, both of BIGELOW and SCHROEDER, 1962, from the Gulf of Mexico. The present new species from the South China Sea is, therefore, the fourth species of the genus, which can readily be distinguished from the known forms by the following simple key.
The artificial crosses of Pseudogobio esocinus _??_ ×Pseudorasbora parva _??_ and Pseudorasbora parva _??_ ×Biwia zezera _??_ were successful and three hybrids were reared until they reach one or two-year old. All of them turned out to be neuters. They are not only intermediate in morphological characters but also have typically intermediate behavior between their parental forms. Time of hatching is also nearly intermediate. In the cross of Pseudorasbora parva_??_×Pseudogobio esocinus _??_, however, only about four per cent of eggs developed to gastrula and all of them never went beyond the closure of the blastopore. In the cross of Biwia zezera _??_ ×Pseudorasbora parva _??_, the fertilization were successful, while hybrids could not survive beyond 12 days after hatching.
An example of alepocephalid fish recently collected by the research vessel “Tanseimaru” is believed to represent a new species. The present authors express here their sincere thanks to Prof. Yoshiyuki MATSUE, Director of the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, for the opportunity to report upon this new species, and to the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science for the partial financial support of this study through a grant from this society as a part of the Japan-U. S. Science Cooperative Program.