Among the 109 species of gobiids listed at the end, the supratemporals were found in six species: five out of sixteen species in Group 1 and one species in Group 3 (Table 1).No supratemporal was found in Group 2 and Group 4 (for the characteristics of the four groups, see Prince Akihito, 1969). These bones were found between the sensory canal groove of the pterotic and the post-temporal (Fig.1).These species had a continuous sensory canal from the anterior tip of the head to the area of the supratemporals and the supratemporal canal.The supratemporals consisted of three pieces, anterior, median, and posterior, which I named without particular consideration for the homology of Tominaga's (1968: 59) anterior and posterior supratemporals on the Pempheridae.They were all separated in three species, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Figs.1.A and 2.A), Bostrichthys sinensis (Fig.2.C), and Ophiocara porocephala (Fig.2.D), and each piece usually had one nerve foramen.In two species of the genus Butis, B.butis (Fig.2.E, F) and B. gymnopoma (Fig.2.G), the median and posterior supratemporals were fused. In Xenisthmus clarus (Figs.1.B and 2.H) the anterior and median supratemporals were fused.The fused bone had two nerve foramina.Wide individual variations were observed in the shape, including loss of a bone (Fig.2.B), separation of a fused bone, loss of a nerve foramen, or an additional foramen on the upper lateral side. The presence or absence of supratemporals was dependent on the presence or absence of the sensory canal on that part, except in the cases of Bathygobius petrophilus and Syciopterus japonicus (both belonging to Group 4) which had a continuous sensory canal but no supratemporal canal. Although the presence or absence of sensory canals was sometimes inconsistent, it seems that the systematic value of the supratemporal is signifcant, considering that the most unspecialized Oxyeleotris marmorata and Bostrichthys sinensis (which are the only species having a suborbital) have the most complete sensory canal systems with three supratemporals.
Mature adults of the clingfish, Aspasma minima (Döderlein), consisting of six males and.42 females, were collected at the coastal waters of Nomo near Nagasaki during the period from May to June 1970.The males, ranging from 47.9 to 71.4 mm in total length, and the females, ranging from 36.6 to 50.2 mm, showed the secondary sex characters in the forms of head and genital papilla.Three males were selected from the mature adults and paired with some females varying in number from one to seventeen in four cases and being replaced each time. They were placed in a glass aquarium provided with an artificial nest of stone or tile. They spawned egg masses four times at the interval of four to seven days.The egg masses, each mass being rather dense in one layer, were deposited on the underside of the nest. The largest male, being 71.4 mm in total length, was clinging upsidedown to the underside of the nest near the egg mass at every spawning. The number of the eggs in one spawning was enumerated from 140 to 619 in four cases, but the number of the ripe.ovarian eggs was counted from 80 to 210 in 23 mature females. The egg is ellipsoid in shape, and it is provided with an adhesive pedestal at its bottom.and rather wide perivitelline space.The size of the egg varies from 1.25 to 1.35 mm in.long axis and from 0.90 to 0.95mm in short axis.The yolk of the egg is light greenish yellow in color and granular in appearance, and it contains about 20 oil globules.The incubation period of the egg extends from 301 to 350 hours in some eggs at the water temperature of 18.6 to 23.5°C. The newly hatched larva measures from 3.62 to 3.98mm in total length and has a little or no yolk.The larva is rather stout in appearance and has large eyes, the rudiments of the air bladder, and 35 myomeres. The anus of the larva is open in the posterior part of the body. One of the hatched larvae, kept in a plastic aquarium and fed with rotifers and. copepods, was reared for 18 days and grew up to a 6.70 mm postlarva.During this rearing period, the larva changed its life mode from a planktonic life to a clinging one.Another postlarva in the planktonic life, collected with fish lamp, was reared up to a 7.45mm juvenile in the complete clinging life. The rudiment of ventral disc appears in a 4.5mm postlarva in the planktonic life..The disc is completed in a 14mm juvenile in the clinging life. The collections of the clingfish, carried out at the coastal waters of Nomo during May 1969 to January 1971, show that the postlarvae, being from 3.3 to 7.5mm in total length.and in the planktonic life, come around fish lamp at night during the period from May to July. The juveniles, being over 10mm, enter into the clinging life on the sea weeds, Ecklonia cava and Sargassum spp.and feed on copepods, amphipods, zoea larvae, tinny shells, and ostracods there.The males grow up larger than the females.The life span is.one year.
From April 1968 to July 1970, over 130 planktonic larvae of clingfishes consisting of three forms were collected with fish lamp at the Nomo Bay near Nagasaki.Some of them were reared up to juveniles, and identified as Aspasma minima (Döderlein), Lepadichthys frenatus Waite, and Aspasmichthys ciconiae (Jordan and Fowler).The larvae and juveniles of A.minima were reported by the present authors (1971) in another paper. The larvae of L.frenatus, ranging from 3.2 to 6.0mm in total length, were collected in May, June, August, October, and November.One of the four planktonic postlarvae of L.frenatus, ranging from 4.75 to 5.40 mm in total length, was reared for 12 days in a plastic aquarium and grew up to 9.9 mm.The clinging habit was commenced at this stage.Furthermore, it was reared for seven days up to 10.0mm juvenile in the clinging life. The planktonic postlarvae of A.ciconiae, ranging from 3.4 to 8.1mm in total length, .were collected during April to June. The common characters of the planktonic postlarvae of the three clingfishes, ranging from 4 to 6 mm in total length, are as follows.The head is rather depressed and stout.Each larva has large eyes, the rudiments of the air bladder, and the number of myomeres ranging from 35 to 36.The anus is open in the posterior part of the body.Melanophores appear on the body side except the tail.The granular tissues appear on the body surface except the marginal part of the larval fin. A key to the classification of the larvae is as follows: I.15-17 Melanophores on both sides of dorsal median line (1) 14-15 Melanophores on both sides of ventral median line in abdomen …Aspasmichthys ciconiae (2) No melanophores on ventral side of abdomen…Lepadichthys frenatus II.No melanophores on dorsal side…Aspasma minima