The present study on archaeological materials is concerned particularly with 110 pieces of pharyngeal bones of parrotfishes.They were excavated together with many other fish remains from the shell-mounds located at Ushuku in Amami-Oshima, Omonawa in Tokunoshima, Kagoshima Prefecture, and Shimashihyahma in Kutakajima, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan (Fig.1).The age of the shell-mounds is considered to be the late “Jomon” age (about 3, 000-2, 500 B.P.).There bones were identified by comparison with those of the living species found in the region (Figs.2 and 3). The characters of the upper pharyngeal which were used to distinguish species of the parrotfishes are: arrangement and number of raws of teeth, and position and shape of each tooth.Those of the lower pharyngeal are: shape of dentigerous surface, number of teeth of a transversal row, arrangement of rows of teeth, and relative height between surface of lateral process and dentigerous surface. The archaeological specimens identified belonged to three genera and ten species: namely, Scarops rubroviolaceus (Bleeker), Bolbometopon bicolor (Rüppell), Scarus gibbus Rüppell, S.lunula (Snyder), S.sordidus Forsskål, S.taeniurus Valenciennes, S.bowersi (Snyder), S.dimidiatus Bleeker, S.ghobban Forsskål, and S.aeruginosus Valenciennes.
Three species of Notoscopelus: N.japonicus, N.resplendens, and N.caudispinosus were found in Japan.The last species is first time recorded from the western North Pacific, and the second species is recorded here for the second time from Japan.These three species are described and compared with specimens from other parts of the world.The type specimen of N.japonicus was found to be in Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, with the catalogue number FMNH 80459, and errors in the original description on numbers of various photophores are corrected in this report.
Cytological observations on the nuclei of the ripe egg cells just after spawing were carried out in two kinds of fishes, the kinbuna (Carassius auratus subsp.) and the ginbuna (C.auratus langsdorfii);both were collected from Kasumigaura.The egg cells of the kinbuna contained nuclei at metaphase of the second maturation division and had a first polocyte, while those of the ginbuna showed nuclei at metaphase of a single maturation division without a first polocyte.The mean diameter of the nuclear plates of 20 egg cells was 6.32 μ it for the kinbuna and it was 12.28 μ, a for the ginbuna.The nuclear plate in the ginbuna was twice larger than that in the kinbuna in diameter.Judged from Kobayashi et al. (1970), it is obvious that the ginbuna here used was triploid or tetraploid specimens and the kinbuna was diploid ones. The developmental process of the oocytes was carefully observed in the ovaries of two triploid lines of the ginbuna (offsprings from 3n ginbuna _??_).At the ripe egg stage, the majority of the oocytes contained metaphase nuclei derived from a single maturation division.Tripolar spindle formation at the first maturation division was not found in the present observation, contrary to the result in Carassius auratus gibelio by Cherfas (1966, 1972). Based on the present observations, it is considered that the triploid lines of the ginbuna are unisexual and may make triploid egg cells throughout a single homoeotype division during maturation period.
The yellow or white skin-flap was observed on the lower margin of the gill cover of Limanda yokoliamae.The flaps have various size and shape They are flattering in some and not so in others.Its function is not obvious, but may serve to lure small organisms near the mouth of the flounder.The similar structure was also observed in some other species of floundes.