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24 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
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  • 佐藤 光雄
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 231-238
    公開日: 2011/02/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    アサヒアナハゼの顆粒細胞は, 主として皮膚表皮の中層に存在する大型細胞である.本細胞は, Thomson (1969) がハコフグの一種Ostracion meleagrisで記載した棍状細胞 (club cell) の発達段階に, 類似した発達経過をたどるものと考えられる。発達段階II~IIIの本細胞は, 多数の酸好性顆粒を含み, 予備的な組織化学検索から, 芳香族および塩基性アミノ酸を含むたんぱく質の存在が予想される.前記の段階にある本細胞の電顕像をみると, 細胞の主要部は1個の中心空胞 (centralvacuole) によって占められ, この空胞中には比較的電子密度の高い顆粒が多数散在している。空胞周辺の細胞質には, かなり大きい胞状体の層があり, これらの胞状体中にも上記同様の顆粒が含まれる。この胞状体が破れ, 顆粒を中心胞内へ放出していると考えられる電顕像がみられることから, 胞状体の相次ぐ破裂と含有顆粒の放出とによって, 中心胞が形成されるものと推定される。本細胞をもつ硬骨魚類の皮膚組織に共通する特徴の有無, ならびに本細胞の系統的意義については, 今後の検討が必要である。なお, 本細胞の機能についても若干の考察を試みた.
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  • 高橋 裕哉, 杉本 良郎
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 239-245
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    人為成熟誘導試験のため1976年秋, 青森県の河川で採捕した下りウナギ雌の1尾 (全長65.9cm, 体重5309) に, 催熟処理開始前の開腹生検により, 雌雄同体型の生殖腺を見出した.この生殖腺は外観的にも組織学的にも正常な卵巣組織を主体としたが, 生殖腺の全長にわたる末端縁に無数の精巣組織の小塊を “ふさ飾り” 状に有していた.この精巣組織は組織学的に正常で, 結合組織層により卵巣組織から分離されていた.この個体に生殖腺刺激ホルモンを投与し, 処理中定期的に生殖腺の生検をくり返した結果, 雌雄同体生殖腺の卵巣部・精巣部の双方とも処理に伴う成熟の進行をみせることが確かめられたが, 卵巣卵の発達が急速かつ変異に富むことも知られた.
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  • 小笠原 義光, 赤津 澄人, 多紀 保彦
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 246-250
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Monodactylus sebae (Cuvier) の稚魚期の形態変化と仔稚魚におよぼす塩分の影響を明らかにした.腹鰭第1軟条長は全長約15mmで最大になり, その後, 短縮するという顕著な変化が見られた。全長約30mmでは親と同様の体色を呈し, 4本の横縞が明瞭になる.仔魚期は狭塩性であるが, 稚魚期になると淡水および海水に対する抵抗性が増し, 広塩性になる。今回の実験結果から, 稚魚期には形態変化と並行して, 生理・生態的な機能が多岐に分化することが伺われた。
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  • 鈴木 清, 木村 清志
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 251-260
    公開日: 2011/07/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present report aims the comparative morphology of two cyprinid fishes, Zacco platypus (Temminck et Schlegel) and Z.temminckii (Temminck et Schlegel), particularly with reference to the relative growth of two parts of the mouth which may be closely related to the capture of food, the floor of oral cavity, the gill raker, the pharyngeal bone, and the intestine.Through the detailed comparative study of these organs, the authors could make success in making clear the significance of the structural adaptations of these organs in the two species in relation to their feeding behaviors.
    The growth of two parts of mouth (length of upper jaw and width of lower jaw) was examined against changes of total length.Upon the relative growth method of analysis, it is clear that the sizes of these parts for Z.temminckii are obviously larger than those for Z.platypus.Therefore, it might be considered that Z.temminckii is capable of seizing larger food organisms.
    The prominent fleshy folds, called the oral folds, are present on the floor of oral cavity.Development of these folds varies in its extent according to the species.In Z.platypus, the folds develop gradually and increase in their number with growth of the fish.When the fish reaches about 90 mm in total length, all of the folds are highly elevated above the surface of the floor.In Z.temminckii, they are scarcely developed throughout the life history excepting the first two which are highly elevated in the fish measuring more than 60 mm in total length.
    The outer surfaces of oral folds are provided with prominent papillae.There are also some specific variations in the degree of development of these papillae.In Z.platypus, the first indication of formation of the papillae can be observed in the fish measuring about 45 mm in total length.With growth of the fish, they develop gradually and increase in their sizes.In Z.temminckii, the papillae appear on the outer surfaces of the first two folds when the fish exceeds 55 mm in total length, and increase gradually in their sizes.However, the rest of folds are furnished with minute papillae which are only sparsely set on their surfaces.It appears that the development of oral folds and their papillae is positively related to the herbivorous behavior of the fish.
    The modal number of gill rakers on the first arch is 11 in Z.platypus and 10 in Z.temminckii.In the former species, the gill rakers are rather slender, tapering gradually towards the pointed tips.While in the latter, the distal ends of gill rakers on the ceratohyal bone are truncated or the knob-like appearances when the fish reaches about 120 mm in total length.
    The dental formula of pharyngeal teeth is 1, 4, 4-4, 4, 2 in Z.platypus and 2, 4, 5-4, 4, 2 in Z.temminckii.From the statistical comparison of the growth of three parts of pharyngeal bone (length of bone, width of the same and length of the longest tooth) against changes of total length between Z.platypus and Z.temminckii, it is clear that the relative sizes of three parts for the latter species become obviously larger than those for the former when the fish exceeds about 45 mm in total length.
    Intestines of the two species bear a close resemblance to each other in their forms in the fish measuring less than 35 mm in total length.However, owing to the occurence of somewhat complicated coiling, the intestine of Z.platypus becomes longer than that of Z.temminckii when the fish exceeds 35 mm in total length.It is presumed that the elongation of the intestine of the former species is a structural adaptation for assimilating minute adherent algae.
    Considering from the facts described above, it may be deducible that the structures of feeding and digesting organs change ontogenetically in relation to the behavior of minute adherent algae feeding inkn-abstract=
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  • 坂本 隆志, 鈴木 克美
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 261-270
    公開日: 2011/07/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The porcupine puffer, Diodon holacanthus Linnaeus, a well-known fish belonging to the family Diodontidae, inhabits the warm seas all over the world.However, both the behavior and life history of the puffer and its allies are virtually unknown.The present paper deals with the spawning behavior and the early life history of D.holacanthus based on observations at the Kanazawa Aqua-rium and the Marine Science Museum of Tokai University, from 1969 to 1975.
    Spawning and reproduction of the puffer was first observed at the end of May when the water temperature reached approximately 24.4°C, and was observed continuously until the end of August.The parental fishes, measuring 176-259 mm (in males) and 210-231 mm (in females) in total length, were reared for one or two years since they were collected from the coasts of Wakasa Bay and Noto Peninsula, the Sea of Japan (Fig.2, Table 1).
    Every day during the spawning season, in the afternoon or early evening, one or two males approach a female who remains motionless at the bottom of the rearing tank.The males, pressing their snouts against the belly of the female, incite her with their courtship behavior.The female is then slowly pushed upward towards the surface of the water by the males.Several other males also gather around the female and help to push her upward.If the female is not ready to spawn, she deserts the males and returns to the bottom alone.After repetition of such activities, the female spawns her eggs just below the surface of the water.And the eggs are fertilized simul-taneously by the males (Fig.1).Spawning always takes place between one female and four or five males with no exception, and occurs between 20: 52 and 23: 25 or at night at an undetermined time (Table 1).
    The fertilized eggs of D.holacanthus are buoyant, colorless, and spherical, measuring 1.62-1.86 mm in diameter.During egg development, a thick external membrane appears over the yolk of the eggs 45 hrs.after fertilization.The hatching takes place 103-118 hrs.after fertilization when the water temperature is 24.2-25.5°C.The newly hatched larvae, measuring 2.46-2.73 mm in total length, have 12+8=20 myotomes and float belly upward just beneath the surface of the water.The larvae are covered with a thick pliable shell excluding the caudal section.Ten days after hatching, the larvae, measuring 4.86-5.94 mm in total length, form fin rays and several tuber-cles on the body.These tubercles contain the rudiments of the spine.The shell over the body becomes indistinct or disappears (Fig.3).
    Thirteen days after hatching, small distinct spines can be observed in the tubercles.The fry, measuring 6.04-7.94 mm in total length, sometimes puff out their bellies.Twenty-five days after hatching, fused teeth and large irregular black speckles on the dorsal side are visible in fry measuring 20.3 mm in total length.Sixty-six days after hatching, the fry, measuring 46.5 mm in total length, have irregular speckles and pointed spines similar to those of the adult (Fig.4).
    The thick external membrane and pliable shell, which can be observed from 45 hrs.after ferti-lization to 10 days after hatching in D.holacanthus, closely resembles the rudiment of the shell which appear in the similar stages of the trunkfish, Ostracion tuberculatus (see Mito, 1962) and of the slender mola, Ranzania laevis (see Leis, 1977).The characteristics of the eggs and larvae of D.holacanthus bear no resemblance to those of the known puffers (except the slender mola, R.laevis) belonging to the same suborder Tetraodontoidei, but rather resemble the trunkfishes belonging to the suborder Balistoidei.These results are thought to suggest to the systematic relationships between Ostraciontidae, Diodontidae, and Molidae.
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  • 鈴木 克美, 日置 勝三
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 271-277
    公開日: 2011/07/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The sea bream, Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck et Schlegel), a coastal fish belonging to the family Lethrinidae, ranges from Sendai Bay in Japan to the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.The present paper deals with the mode of reproduction and early life history of the fish which were reared in an oceanarium (10×10×6 m, depth) at the Marine Science Museum of Tokai University in 1973.
    The seventeen parental fishes, measuring 290-340 mm in fork length, were collected from the coast of Suruga Bay and reared in the oceanarium for two or three years.Reproduction occurred during the months of May and June in the oceanarium when the water temperature ranged 18.0-26.5°C (Fig.1).
    Mutual courtship of the sea bream begins when one male attempts to lure a female who re-mains motionless in a small school of the fish close to the bottom.The male approaches the female and blocks her way, and then, he taps her belly with his snout.They ascend slowly together towards the surface of the water with the male under the female.If the female is not ready to spawn, the paired fishes return separately to the bottom.After several repetitions of this mutual courtship behavior, the paired fishes, when they reach the height of one or two meters below the surface of the water, take position themselves side by side.The eggs are spawned and are fertilized simultane-ously (Fig.2). Spawning occurs between 20: 30 and 21: 00 at the water temperature of 20.7-22.8°C.
    The characteristics of color of the sea bream can be divided into three distinct types and are interchangeable.One type, in which several wavy silver lines appear on the laterals, is observed only in the male during reproductive activity.The other two types are observed commonly in both sexes under normal conditions (Fig.3).
    Fertilized eggs of the sea bream are buoyant, spherical, and colorless, measuring 0.76-0.79 mm in diameter.Twenty-five hours after fertilization, an oil globule, which was spherical until that time, warps elliptically or deforms to a gourd-shape in the lateral view.The hatching takes place 38-40 hrs.after fertilization at the water temperature of 20.0-22.4°C.The newly hatched larvae, measuring 1.48-1.50 mm in total length, have 9+24=33 myotomes.The elliptical oil globule once again becomes spherical.Twenty-two hours after hatching, the larvae, measuring 2.35-2.40 mm in total length, have 5+19-20=24-25 myotomes (Fig.4).
    The warping of the oil globule in the yolk has been previously observed in early life stage of two lethrinid fishes, Lethrinus nematacanthus and L.choerorynchus (Mito, 1956;Akazaki et al., 1975;present authors, unpublished).However, in both lethrinids, the oil globule does not return to the spherical shape in the newly hatched larvae.Also the characteristics of the newly hatched larvae of G. griseus are compared with those of the two lethrinids and a few related fishes.
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  • 岸 由二
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 278-280
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    河口域, 河川, 湖の3ヵ所のチチブ個体群で卵径を比較した結果, 河口域型のチチブ (T.o.obscurus) は, 淡水の2個体群 (T.o.brevispinis) にくらべて体積で約2倍の大きさの卵を産むことがわかった.また, 河口域と湖の両個体群では卵径と雌親魚の体長の間に相関がみられず, さらに, 淡水中で約10年間飼育された河口域型チチブの卵径は元の個体群のものと変わらなかった。観察された卵径の差には遺伝的な基礎があるものと推定される。
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  • 井田 斉, 室伏 誠, 藤原 慎一, 藤野 和男
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 281-284
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    中・大型の魚類の染色体観察は従来の方法では生体の輸送, 収容の設備, およびコルヒチン処理量の経済性など多くの問題点がある、これらの点を解決すべくインビトロの手法の開発を試みた.
    コルヒチン濃度0.003~0。005%の等張液 (リンゲル液又は2倍稀釈海水) 50mlと酸素とを充填した容器に鯉切片0.3~0.59を漬け, 数時問室温で振盪することでマグロ, ゴマサバ, ブリの染色体像を得ることが出来た.染色体数はいずれも2n=48で核型はマグロ中部着糸染色体 (M) =2, 次端部着糸染色体 (ST) =2, 端部着糸染色体 (A) =44;ゴマサバST=2, A=46;ブリ次中部着糸染色体 (SM) =2, ST=2, A=44であった.本方法は, 高速で泳ぐ中・大型魚に応用出来る, コルヒチン処理量が少ない, 処理が簡単である, 可食部を汚染しないなどの利点がある.
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  • 手島 和之
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 285-289
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    ホシザメMustelus manazoおよびシロザメM.griseus雄の生殖腺指数と組織学的方法による精巣中の各精細胞の出現率の月別変化を調査した。両種とも生殖腺指数は6刀より7刀にかけて最小になり, 11月から12, 月にかけて最大になる.精子は両種とも生殖腺指数の値が最小になる時放出される.すなわち, 6月より8月の間が両種の交尾時期であると考えられる.両種ともに, 精子形成は周年休むことなく行なわれる.このため, 採集したすべての標本の精巣中に精原細胞, 精母細胞, 精子細胞および精子の各精細胞が観察される.しかしながら, 各精細胞の出現率は月によって異なっている.精母細胞が多く出現する時は精子は少なく, 反対に, 精母細胞の出現が少い時は精子は多数存在する.
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  • 祖一 誠
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 290-294
    公開日: 2011/07/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Thirty-six specimens of the dolphin, Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 35 to 50cm in total length, were collected during September to October, 1975, off the coast of Kamogawa, Chiba Prefecture, Japan.They were kept in a big tank (17m×12m×3.5m).The water temperature in the tank was controled between 22.8°C and 25.4°C.
    Eleven specimens survived to grow up about 100cm in total length when their breeding behavior was observed.At the time when the first spawning was found, 8 specimens were survived.Twenty times of spawnings were observed from April 22 to July 13, 1976.The spawning was taken place mainly at the water surface by a pair of adults, although the pair was often accompanied by one to three dolphins.Every spawning occurred between 15: 35 and 17: 45.
    Fertilized eggs are transparent, floating, and spherical in shape, 1.40 to 1.65 mm in diameter.The eggs hatched out about 60 hours after fertilization at 24 to 25°C.
    The newly hatched larvae were 3.8 to 4.9 mm in total length.In 4 days after hatching the larvae began to eat Brachionus plicatilis.But all of them died within 9 days after hatching.
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  • 明仁親王 , 目黒 勝介
    24 巻 (1977 - 1978) 4 号 p. 295-299
    公開日: 2011/07/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Twelve specimens of a goby were collected from Ishigakijima, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.They were identified as Myersina macrostoma by Dr.Hoese of the Australian Museum through comparison with the holotype collected from the Philippines. Myersina macrostoma has hitherto been known only from the holotype described by Herre (1934).This record is the first from Japan.
    This species is thought to be closely related to the genus Cryptocentrus.The characteristic features of Myersina macrostoma are found in the gill-membranes and the vomer.Both sides of the gill-membranes are united across the isthmus.Both sides of the lateral anterior part of the under side of the vomer protrude posteriorly and interiorly as pointed processes, which were described as teeth in the original description.
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