A total of nineteen Luvarus imperialis larvae, 3.5 to 10.7mm in standard length were collected during the cruises of R/V Shoyo Maru in the northwestern Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. This paper describes meristic and morphological features of these specimens throughout development. The features particularly noted in postlarvae and early juveniles of L. imperialis are: 1) large head with a wide snout, 2) oval and well-compressed body, 3) large pectoral fins, 4) developed and finely serrated dorsal and pelvic spines, 5) well-developed head spination, 6) minute spines on the soft rays of all fins in larvae larger than about 5.6mm SL, and 7) very rough body surface associated with the development of spiny-edged scales. Larvae of L. imperialis occur mostly in the coastal waters between lat. 40°N and 40°S of the world oceans, suggested the spawning in temperate waters.
A specimen of Toxotes jaculator (Pallas, 1767) (Pisces: Toxotidae) was collected from the mouth of Urauchi River (24°23'55'N, 123°46'48'E), Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. This species was recorded for the first time from the Japanese Archipelago. Its occurrence in Japan is the northernmost record of this species.