Fishes were figured on Ancient Egyptian temples (Pyramids and others) in the past history. The Egyptian fishes are present in four region: Nile, Lakes, Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. 1) Fishes of the Nile were first described scientificall b FORSCAL 1775 andsome of them are preserved in Denmark Museum. Many other scientists dealt with these fishes, among whom we can mention BRUCE (1790), BOULENGER (1907), KARAM (1940) who classified them into families, genera and species, and SUYEHIRO (1958) who studied the peculiar swimming of Synodontis nigrita. 2) Fishes of Lakes were described by MITCHELL (1895), HILGENDORF (1903) and others. 3) Fishes of the Mediterranean Sea were studied by several workers, the most important of whom was WIMPENNY (1934) who described the species shown in table 1. 4) Fishes of the Red Sea were described by FORSCÅL (1775), RÜPPELL (1826), KLUNZINGER (1870), 1871 and 1884, in table 2), SMITH (1959) and others. Fishes of order Plectognathae were studied in details by CLARK and GOHAR (1953) from Al-Ghardaqa. The writer refers also the mummy of fishes in Ancient Egypt. Now the research workers in Universities of Cairo, Alexandria and Ein-Shams as well as those in the Oceanographic Institute of Al-Ghardaqa and the Hydrobiological Institute of Alexandria deal with all these fishes from several points of view. The production of fishes in Egypt in 1957 is shown in table 3 which was made by the help of Dr. LATIF. The total production is about 38, 894, 314 kgs. (21, 536, 630) kgs from inland water and 17, 357, 684 kgs from sea-water). In comparing this amount and the population of Egypt with the total fish production of Japan in the same year (5, 407, 544 tons) and our population we can find that the consumption ratio of every Egyptian is about 1/28 of the Japanese one.
Here the author has furthermore enumerated twenty unrecorded species of fishes with brief descriptions, which are to be newly added into a list of fishes of Niigata Prefecture and its adjacent waters of the Japan Sea side. The author has now checked 501 species of fishes from the waters around Niigata Prefecture. Among the fishes listed herein, there are one small freshwater fish, Biwia zezera, three youngs of fishes, Zenopsis nebulosa, Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis, and Tetrao don stellatus, which were transported by warm Tsushima Current, and one rare bramid fish, Taractes platycephalus. It is interesting to find distribution of an apodal fish, Muraenichthys gymnotus, in the coast of Sado Island. Thirteen records of col lection of the dealfish, Trachipterus ishikawai, are also given in this paper, which were obtained in the sea surface and coast of Niigata to Yamagata Prefectures during February 1960 to May 1961.
Three species of lutianid fishes of the genus Paracaesio, namely, P. caeruleus (KATAYAMA), P. kusakarii ABE and P. tumidus (TANAKA), are important food-fishes in Japan and Ryukyu Islands. In addition to these species, there occurs another congener in Ryukyu, and, though not commonly met with, it is known as “ Hingashitchu* ” among a few experienced fish-dealers in the island of Okinawa, one of the Ryukyus. In 1960, the junior author suggested without giving it a new scientific name that the “ Hinga-shitchu ” might represent a new species, and since passed on the specimens of this fish to the senior author who has access in Tokyo to thousands (of caeruleus) or hundreds (of kusakarii and tumidus) of individuals of the three congeners mentioned above in a year. As these members of Paracaesio are subject to considerable individual variation in the shape of the body, coloration, size and arrangement of teeth, etc. (probably correlated with the sexes at least partly), and as the number of the specimens of the “ Hinga-shitchu ” available is so small, it took some time before the present authors have been led to the conclusion that a new scientific name should be given to the “ Hinga-shichu ” and that it is very closely related to Apsilus fuscus** KLUNZINGER (not of VALENCLENES, 1830) known from Red Sea and Paracaesio xanthurus (BLEEKER) from the East Indies.