The study included 37 Japanese Black breeding cattle allocated to two study groups. One group（n=7）was transported from a fattening farm in Tarama Island, Okinawa Prefecture, to a facility in Mogami, Yamagata Prefecture（2,628 km over 96 hours; long distance or Group L）, and the other group（n=30）was transported within Yamagata Prefecture to the same facility（130 km over 3 hours; short distance or Group S）. Each animal had a 0.93 m2 space in a truck for long-distance transport and 1.00 m2 for short-distance transport. The age and bodyweight（mean ± standard deviation）at the time of transport were 8.0 ± 0 months and 197.9 ± 34.0 kg in Group L and 8.8 ± 0.7 months and 300.4 ± 42.6 kg in Group S, respectively, and were significantly different between the two groups（p<0.05）. Hair samples were collected twice, before transport and 72 days after arrival. Fecal and blood samples were collected three times, before transport, upon arrival at the facility, and 72 days after arrival. Hair cortisol concentration（h-Cort）and fecal cortisol metabolite concentration（f-Cort）were measured as stress indicators. The mean h-Cort before transport and 72 days after arrival was 6.8 and 11.7 pg/mg in Group L and 3.9 and 1.5 pg/mg in Group S. The mean h-Cort was significantly reduced in Group S（p<0.05）. By comparison between the groups, post-arrival h-Cort in the long-distance group was significantly higher than in the short-distance group（p<0.01）. The mean f-Cort before transport, at arrival, and at 72 days after arrival was 5.1, 60.9, and 37.7 pg/mg in the long-distance group and 30.6, 28.8, and 15.2 pg/mg in the short-distance group, respectively. It was significantly lower at 72 days compared to the baseline value in the short-distance group（p<0.05）. By comparison between the groups, the long-distance group had significantly lower values before transport and higher values at arrival and 72 days after arrival compared to the short-distance group（p<0.01 or 0.05）. By blood chemical analysis, significantly lower vitamin A and significantly higher free fatty acids（FFA）were observed on arrival in both groups compared to baseline values（p<0.05）. In particular, the increase in FFA was larger in the long-distance group than in the short-range group. These findings indicate that long-distance transport might have a severe and prolonged impact on the stress status of cattle.
To better understand the pathophysiology of heterozygosity for cholesterol deficiency（CD）in Holstein cattle, clinical and necropsy findings of 12 heterozygous calves with chronic diarrhea and/or muscle atrophy were retrospectively analyzed and compared to those of 29 homozygous calves. As a result, frequencies of chronic diarrhea, muscle atrophy, fever, and loss of appetite were not significantly different between these groups. Serum total cholesterol was significantly higher in heterozygous carriers（median, 29 mg/dℓ）than in homozygous calves（median, 8 mg/dℓ）. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume were all significantly higher in heterozygous carriers than in homozygous calves, but white blood cell count, total protein concentration,aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase were not significantly different. Pathologically abnormal findings such as pneumonia, pleuritis, funisitis, and cardiac malformations were significantly more frequently recorded in heterozygous animals（50%）than in homozygous animals（10%）. These findings suggest that the CD-like symptoms observed in the heterozygous calves were more likely caused by organic lesions rather than hypocholesterolemia. However, one of the two heterozygous calves with markedly low serum total cholesterol（<15 mg/dℓ）had no organic lesions except for esophageal ulcer that was similar to those observed in homozygous animals. Therefore, the development of CD-associated symptoms cannot be completely ruled out in heterozygous carriers.
The object of the present study was to investigate the effect of sucrose feeding in postpartum lactating cows. Fourteen multiparous lactating cows were divided into two groups: an untreated control group and a sucrose group（10% sucrose on total mixed ration dry matter basis）. In the sucrose group, ruminal propionate was numerically higher at 2 hours after feeding, and urinary allantoin was significantly higher on day 5 compared to the baseline values before feeding. The rate of increase in ruminal propionate was significantly higher in the sucrose group than in the control group. The rate of decrease in ruminal pH on day 5 tended to be larger in the sucrose group than in the control group. Blood biochemical findings included a lower rate of increase in non-esterified fatty acids at 1 and 4 hours after feeding and a greater rate of decrease in 3-methylhistidine（an index for body protein degradation）at 4 and 6 hours after feeding in the sucrose group compared to the control group. No significant effects of sucrose were observed on the mean values of milk yield, dry matter intake, and incidence of metabolic disorders. These results indicate that sucrose was rapidly fermented in the rumen to produce mainly propionic acid, which in turn likely influenced the rate of microbial protein synthesis. However, production of the propionic acid substrate did not appear to affect glucogenesis and thus ketosis or milk production.
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis（IBK）, also known as pinkeye, is an infectious disease characterized by keratitis, which can progress into corneal ulceration in severe cases. IBK causes significant economic losses for farmers due to reduced weight gain and increased cost for antibiotic treatment. We examined the presence of Moraxella and Mycoplasma spp. in the conjunctiva of 36 Holstein heifers（12 heifers with corneal and conjunctival lesions, 12 heifers with conjunctival lesions, and 12 heifers with no ocular lesions）from a public farm where keratoconjunctivitis was prevalent. Moraxella bovoculi and Moraxella bovis were detected in 11 and 1 heifers with corneal and conjunctival lesions, in 4 and 5 heifers with conjunctival lesions（including one with mixed infection）,and in 1 and 4 heifers with no ocular lesions, respectively. Thus, Moraxella bovis, which is reported to be the main causative agent of IBK, was mainly detected in the heifers with no ocular lesions and those with conjunctival lesions. On the other hand, Moraxella bovoculi, which has an unclear role in the IBK pathogenicity, was mainly detected in cows with more severe keratoconjunctivitis with corneal and conjunctival lesions. Mycoplasma bovoculi was detected from 10 heifers with severe lesions, 10 heifers with mild lesions and 9 asymptomatic heifers, but no association was found between infection and severity of the eye lesions. In conclusion, understanding the role of Moraxella bovoculi infection is important in severe keratoconjunctivitis in cattle.