For measuring air usage during phonation, we recorded the air volume curve as a function of time during sustained phonation by using a spirometer coupled with a simple electrical device. As an indirect estimation of air usage, the phonation quotient (PQ) was also calculated from the vital capacity (VC) and the maximum phonation time (MPT) ; PQ=VC/MPT. This paper reports on a comparative study of PQ and the mean flow rate obtained by the spirometer. The subjects were 50 normal adults ; 25 male and 25 female, and 180 pathological cases ; 75 male and 105 female. For each subject, the mean flow rate was obtained by the spirometer under two different phonatory conditions ; maximum sustained phonation after maximum inspiration and easy sustained (3 to 5 sec) phonation after normal breathing. Comparison of the three values revealed that the mean flow rate during maximum sustained pho-nation showed a high degree of positive correlation with that of easy phonation as well as with PQ. On the other hand, a lesser degree of positive correlation was found between the mean flow rate during easy sustained phonation and PQ. It was also concluded that the mean flow rate during easy sustained phonation, which was considered to best represent the phonatory condition in daily life, was the most sensitive among the three values for detecting abnormality in air usage. It was further concluded that these measurements were valuable for the gross evaluation of air usage during Phonation.
The location and extent of the lesion in the brain was examined by computered tomography (CT) scan of 20 cases of various types of aphasia due to cerebral vascular accidents. Side view of the brain illustrating the location of the lesion was made from the horizontal tomograms of each case. The relationship between the type of aphasia and the location of the lesion was examined by superimposing each illustration upon another, and we obtained the following results 1. Area covering the lesions of all the cases included the so called Broca's area, Wernicke's area and the area in between these two areas. 2. Aphasia of the non-fluent type had the tendency to have the lesion in the posterior and inferior part of the frontal lobe. 3. In cases of the so called conduction type of aphasia, the lesion covered the area between the Broca's and the Wernicke's areas.
With the objective of analyzing and describing the characteristic patterns of deviant speech of pa-tients in three discrete neurologic groups (cerebellar degeneration, pseudobulbar palsy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), speech samples of each patient consisting of sentences and repetitions of syllables were used for rating on each of 39 predetermined dimensions of speech and voice. Analysis based on the means of the ratings of the eight judges on each patient on each dimension yields results leading to the following conclusions: (1) Ratings for sentence samples were higher than those for repetitions of syllables. (2) Some of the dimensions highly deviant in each group were common to all three groups, such as imprecision of consonants and slow rate, while others were characteristic of each group. (3) Speech and voice of the group with Cerebellar disorders were found to be characterized by irregular articulatory and phonatory break down, whereas those of the other two groups were found to be lacking in resonatory-articulatory and phonatory competence, the two groups varying in degree in some of the dimensions. (4) The above characteristics seem to mirror the general abnormalities of motor func-tions in each group. (5) Our findings are comparable to those of Darley et al. and Hirose with some exceptions one of which is considered to be due to the difference of language.