As one of the simple clinical measures of velopharyngeal function in the cleft palate patients, we use“blowing ratio” which is the ratio of soft-blowing time with open nostrils to that with closed nostrils, we also use“nasal emission ratio”, the ratio of the number of the syllables with nasal emission to the total number of syllables examined in articulation test. In order to investigate the validity of the blowing ratio, correlation between the blowing ratio and the nasal emission ratio was examined. The subjects were 22 post-operative cleft palate patients whose average age was 13. The result revealed that the blowing ratio and nasal emission ratio were well correlated in the subjects whose articulation manners were normal, although their correlation was nonsignificant for the patients with abnormal manners of articulation. We concluded from this result that the blowing ratio can be used as a diagnostic measure in order to assess the velopharyngeal function quantitatively.
The purpose of the present study was to analyze and describe the characteristics of speech in dysarthric patients diagnosed as idiopathic Parkinsonism, based on auditory impressions. Eight judges independently rated each of speech samples of 34 patients on each of 39 dimensions of speech using a 4-point scale of severity. The results were as follows; 1) Speech of the patients was characterized by those dimensions such as“imprecise consonants”, “harsh voice”, “breathy voice”and“phoneme repeated”. 2) In comparison with previous reports on the speech characteristics of cerebellar diseases, pseudobulbar palsy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the severity of Parkinsonian dysarthria is considered to be relatively mild. It should also be noted that Parkinsonian dysarthria was the only type in which slow rate of speech was insignificant. 3) The present results showed a considerable discrepancy when compared with those reported by Darley et al., who conducted a similar study on American English speakers. It was considered that the discrepancy might be due either to the remarkable progress in medical treatment for Parkinsonism during the ten years after the report of Darley et al, or to the linguistic difference between the two languages. On the other hand, quite similar results were obtained for comparable items of a previous report on Japanese patients by Hirose.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate some variables relating to the difficulty of word usage in an anomic patient who was treated with therapeutic procedures based on the semantic relations of nouns to verbs (case relations) . The following three-step program constructed in the course of the therapy was effective for the improvement of his difficulty of word usage. Step 1. Using verbs and nouns to express a specific referent. Step 2. Comprehending the semantic relations of nouns to verbs and then using these verbs or nouns. Step 3. Using the verbs or nouns learned in steps 1 and 2 in daily life situations. An analysis of the recovery process indicated that semantic features of individual words affected the learning of these words. It was presumed that the reduced comprehension of semantic fea-tures of the words was associated with the difficulty of word usage. Therefore, this semantic impairment should be taken into concideration in the therapy program for the difficulty of word usage in anomic patients.
To obtain an accurate picture of the syndrome called apraxia of speech and to gain some insight into its underlying mechanisms, observations of the articulatory movements were made of a patient diagnosed as having apraxia of speech by means of a fiberoptic system and an X-ray microbeam system. The data obtained from the apraxic subject were compared with those of the normal and dysarthric subjects. The results indicated that the articulatory movements of the apraxic patient were clearly different from those of the normal as well as the dysarthric subjects in terms of the patterns, consistency and velocity of movements. Based on these observations, possible mechanisms responsible for the syndrome called apraxia of speech were discussed.