There has been little investigation upon the experiment of delayed auditory feedback concerning speech of aphasic patients. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating DAF as a possible tool for examining physiological aspects of aphasic speech and language. Normal speakers were 20 men in their fifties and the aphasics were 45 patients of 4 types—amnesic, conduction, sensory and motor — aged from 24 to 74 years. Each subject was asked to read a Japanese 50 syllable table under NAF (normal auditory feedback) and DAF condition with a delay time of 0.2 seconds and feedback level of 90 dB SPL to both ears. The responses of the aphasic patients to DAF were divided broadly into three groups; 1) The response of the mild group (amnesic aphasia) was similar to that of a normal speaker — increased vocal intensity, reduced rate of utterance and syllable repetition. 2) The response of the severe group (typical sensory or motor aphasia) was characterized by unaffected vocal intensity and articulatory errors in both NAF and DAF. 3) The response of the moderate group (conduction aphasia) was in between the mild and the severe groups.
Investigation of the mode of speech development in a female child with severely impaired hearing ability was made from 7 months to 6 years old. She was trained on a systematic training program with a hearing aid. A special emphasis is stressed on the development of interrogative sentences in this child. It is generally said that infants begin thinking by themselves and acquire the ability of abstract thinking by asking questions. For infants it is important to ask questions for the development of both speech and mentality. The development of her thinking was analyzed and her development of interrogative sentences was compared with that of normal children. The results were as follows: 1) At the age of 6 years the total of her vocabulary was 2, 231 words and her verbal I.Q, was rated as normal. 2) At the age of 6 years she has learnt only 150 interrogative sentences. It is only 13% of a corresponding value for normal children (reported by Ohkubo) . 3) From these findings mentioned above, it is reveald that she had poorer power of active thinking than normal children. Hence, it is emphasized that a new training program should be designed from a view point of stimulation of the development of interrogative sentences.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate developmental relationship between vocal behavior in pre-verbiage, sensorimotor intelligence (SMI-by Piaget) and motor function. Subjects were children with Cerebral Palsy (53 cases) and motor retardation (41 cases) in pre-verbiage. 1) Only crying was found on the 1 st stage of SMI while head could not be completely lifted. 2) Vowels appeared on the 2nd stage of SMI while head was able to be sometimes lifted. 3) Some kinds of consonants appeared on the 3rd stage of SMI while children took the on-elbow position. 4) Repetitive vocalization appeared when his body weight was borne with his own one hand on the 3rd stage of SMI. 5) When SMI reached the 4th stage and children took the all-fous position, they began to imitate a word. But this imitation was thought to be only repetitive vocalization for model word. On the other hand, it is most likely that SMI may have reached 5th or 6th stage in this case. 6) The mode of each vocal behavior seemed to appear depeding on characteristic behavior on each stage of SMI and correspond to each motor development. 7) As evaluating vocal behavior in these children, reflexive maturation of central nervous system also must be considered.
Phonemic and sub-phonemic analyses were made of speech sound errors exhibited by 3 conduction and 3 Broca's aphasic patients in naming and word repetition tasks. The results indicated the following: 1) In both the naming and word repetition tasks, errors for the conduction aphasics oc-curred both in consonants and vowels, while errors for the Broca's aphasics occurred selecti-vely for consonants. 2) In both the naming and repetition tasks, the percentages of substitution errors and transposition errors in the conduction aphasics were 44% and 44%, respectively; in the Broca's aphasics, however, they were 71% and 17%, respectively. 3) An analysis of the substitution errors in terms of the distinctive feature framework showed that the Broca's aphasics most frequent error sounds (50% of all errors) were those which were different from the target sounds only by one feature in both the naming and repetition tasks. In the conduction aphasics, on the other hand, errors were distributed almost at random in terms of the feature distance in the naming task, while the frequency of one-feature errors increased somewhat in the repetition task. On the basis of these findings, it was hypothesized that the differences in error patterns between the two types of aphasia reflected differences in the underlying mechanisms of the impairment in each type, i.e., in the conduction aphasics impairment at the level of phonological processing (phoneme retrieval and sequencing) was responsible for their speech sound errors, while in the Broca's aphasics impairment at the phonetic level of the speech production process (programming of articulatory movements), in addition to impairment at the phonological level (phoneme retrieval), was responsible for their errors.
It is well known that the maternal deprivation exerts a serious influence upon speech and language development, but little is known about these process of improvement. The purpose of this paper is to report the process of improvement of a speechless girl who was deprived of her sufficient mothering in early childhood. In order to improve her delayed speech and language, reupbringing psychotherapy was applied, and she acquired first words after 8 months. The major findings can be summarized as follows: 1) She showed marked retardation in social and verbal behavior comparison with moter development. 2) She made rapid progress in acquiring speech since she was 3 years old. 3) In the process of improvement, she showed remedial regression, such as aggressive behavior, test rejection, dependency, and school refusal. 4) It was considered that these remedial regression activated her attachment behavior which has been lacked by deprivation. 5) Improvement of verbal communication may precede that of non-verbal communication. 6) It may be conceivable that main factor of her speech and language delay was mainly due to masked maternal deprivation.