As there had been no standardized vocabulary tests in Japan, the authors felt a strong need for devising one in order to assess speech comprehension levels of preschool language delayed children. It was intended to assess recognition vocabulary of daily use. For that purpose, the test words were drawn from the “List of Parents' Vocabulary in Speech Addressed to their Children between the Ages of Z and 4 Years”. It was also intended to make the test not to cover a wide range of ages but to cover the minimum, the very basic levels for earring out daily conversation, for which it was presupposed that the level of 6 year-olds might be enough as the first target level of attainment for the language delayed children and that our test should be able to assess the development up to the age level of 6 as fully as possible. After several preliminary tests, a final 50-word test was comprised and standardized for children between the ages of 4 and 6. The test with its full standardization data was presented in this paper.
The purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not an aphasic patient with severe disorder in expressing herself would learn to communicate with a set of certain graphic symbols immediately associable with things or actions. It is known that aphasic patients who get plus scores in auditory and visual comprehension tests in Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA), can recover the ability to repeat words to some degree, though such ability may be limited to echolalia and not practical. The patient presented here can communicate by YES or NO sign but had no effective method of expression. We taught the patient to communicate by “picture signs” and got the following results. i) The patient learned 130 nouns, mostly the names of things. The patient could not learn the “picture signs” to express adjectives and verbs, probably because she could not recall the associations of these signs. ii) The patient, in errors, indicated a specific features. These are (a) perseveration (b) association (c) confusion of figures similar to each other and (d) confusion in identifying specific meanings of signs when they had similarities. It seemed difficult for her to draw “picture signs” without an auditory stimulation. However, she responded by drawing “picture signs” immediately to answer a general question such as “what fruits do you like ?” The result showed that picture signs could be a flexible and meaningful means of expression for a severely aphasic patient.
Clinical work with language disorders requires tests which are based on linguistic theory. Such tests are needed not only that can provide estimates of language levels and aspects but also that can predict units of achievement in linguistic competence. In this study, some syntactic and semantic factors in sentence comprehension were discussed and the sentence comprehension test was designed to deal with development of comprehension of active and passive sentences. Six language retarded children were selected as subject, using this test. The results indicated that this test can provide valid and reliable information for the sentence comprehension of language retarded children, and that patterns of dissolution are characteristic for levels of language disorders.
Acquisition of vocabulary and sentences in oral language (OL) by infants with severe hearing impairment during 12th to 23rd month of age was compaired with that in written language (WL) . Six severely hearing-impaired infants were tested, whose averages of pure tone thresholds at 500, 1000, and 2000Hz were more than 90 dB (JIS, 1969) . The infants were stimulated to OL sinc their 13th month of age, while WL since 14th month. The main results were as followes: 1) All of the infants acquired the vocabulary in WL, while that in OL was acquired by three of them. 2) The mean numbers of receptive vocabulary acquired were 3.3 (0-17 words) in OL, but 50.5 (12-101 words) in WL. 3) On the other hand, the mean numbers of expressive vocabulary were 4.5 (0-9 words) in OL, and 50.5 (12-101 words) in WL. 4) None of six infants could comprehend 2-word sentences in OL, while two of them could in WL. From these results, we concluded that acquision of WL was easier than that of OL. This study suggested that the early presentation of WL was effective in the program of language training for the severely hearing-impaired infants.