Acquisition of oral language (OL) was compared with that of written language (WL) at the age of two years. The subjects were six infants with severe hearing impairment exceeding 80dB (ISO) . OL training was given using a hearing aid during the whole day and WL training was given 1.5 hours a day by means of a WL card method. Subjects developed WL significantly more dominant than OL in vocabularies, sentence length and function words. Moreover, WL in English was also acquired as easily as with Japanese. The results would indicate that the training of infants with poor hearing using WL from an early period of life is effective for the promotion of language development.
1) Critically reviewed currently available treatment methods for autistic children, and 2) Suggested the usefulness of the integrative technique in the treatment of autism with retarded development of speech. A brief explanation of the integrative treatment technique is as follows: 1. Assess, on the basis of Piaget's theory on intellectual development, if the child has already acquired the symbolic function or not. 2. If not, efforts are made to try to enrich the child's sensorimotor experiences, particulary those with its mother, since, according to Piaget's development theory, the sensorimotor stage is fundamental to the subsequent development stages. The child is challenged through such activities as “being held high”, “being held in the mother' s arms”, “giving and taking something from another”, “being constantly spoken to” and so on. The child is not permitted to play alone, because allowing it to indulge in ritualistic activities seems to interfere considerably with its ability to learn. 3. The mother is invited to enter the play-room, first to observe the play sessions and later to participate in them. Thus she gradually gains confidence in playing the maternal role. Thereby both play techniques and behavior modification techniques are integrated. The therapist also gives the mother a home task at the end of each session, so that she can continue the play sessions at home. 4. If the child has already acquired the symbolic function, the application of the operant conditioning techniques for teaching speech is useful, and often necessary.
The articulatory gestures in lateral articulation, one type of articulation disorder, were studied in five (three male and two female) cases-ages six to twenty-six-with four unilateral and one bilateral articulation. Observation of speech production was carried out by dynamic palatograph, X-ray, and testing with stainless steel board. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Via observation by dynamic palatogram and X-ray photos, the tongue completely contacts the hard palate and the air-stream does not flow to the center of the oral cavity when lateral articulation sounds are produced. 2. The air-stream produced in all cases with lateral articulation does not flow to the center of the stainless steel board. 3. The vowel [i], consonants followed by the vowel [i], the glide [j], and the consonants [pj] [bj] [mj] [rj] [kj] [gj] [∫] [t∫] [d3] [ç] [s] [ts] [dz] [ke] [ge] are pronounced with lateral articulation. 4. After articulation training, the tongue movements in all cases with lateral articulation become normal, that is, the air-stream flows to the center of the oral cavity.