The purpose of the present study was to look specitically for the presence of subtle linguistic and nonlinguistic deficits that persist after left hemisphere lesions incurred during infancy or childhood, and to compare them with the ultimate outcome for the late onset aphasics (adult and geriatric aphasics) . A battery of linguistic and nonlinguistic examinations was given to a total of 17 CVA patients divided into three groups, i. e., 5 child aphasics (younger than 15 years old at the time of onset) ; 6 adult aphasics (20 to 59 years at the time of onset) ; and 6 geriatric aphasics (older than 60 years at the time of onset) . Six normal elementary school children (mean age : 11.5) served as controls. The results of these examinations were compared among the three aphasia groups and analyzed in relation to the lesion information obtained by CT scan. The results were as follows 1. Child aphasics as a group exhibited a superior performance for linguistic and communicative functions among the three groups. Nevertheless, child aphasics were significantly inferior to the normal control children especially on syntactic and reading tasks. Moreover, the chidren who incurred brain injury befory the age of three exhibited a severe limitation in nonlinguistic functions. Older children (with the onset of aphasia after the age of six) exhibited a more selective disorder of linguistic functions with some correspondence to the site of their lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. 2. The adult aphasics exhibited selective disorders of linguistic functions corresponding to the site of their lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. 3. The pattern of linguistic impairments in the geriatric aphasics did not always correspond to their lesion sites as obtained by CT scan. Some of the patients in this group exhibited disorders in nonlinguistic functions as well. Based on these findings, underlying mechanisms for the differential recovery among the different age groups were suggested.
A correlation between vocal abuse and subsequent voice disorders has been documented in the literature, but quantitative analysis of this problem has not received much attention. Although occupation is thought to influence vocal use, the relationship between occupation and vocal dysfunction is not well known. In order to understand this relationship, questionnaires concerning the extent and duration of vocal use during their working hours and their vocal problems were given to subjects with three different occupations : nursery school teacher, hospital nurse and radio or TV announcer. Speaking time was also measured by speech accumulator in some subjects. The nursery school teachers spoke twice as much as and experienced vocal dysfunction five times more than the hospital nurses. They were forced to use their voice loudly for many hours subjectively and objectively when compared to the individuals with other occupations. Voice disorders also occurred frequently and earlier depending on the extent of vocal abuse. The degree of concern about vocal problems by the individuals questioned was very different depending on their occupation, being especially high in radio and TV announcers.
In the previous papers we found that aphasic patients used several sentence comprehension strategies. They understand sentences either, 1) from the semantic selective restrictions of lexicon, 2) on the basis of its word order in surface structure. (Word Order Comprehension strategy), or 3) by decoding its particles (Particle Comprehension strategy) . In this paper we discussed the following : First, in the Word Order Comprehension strategy, are “semantic relations in deep structures” or “grammatical categories” given to noun phrases according to the order of words? Second, in the Particle Comprehension strategy, how does a syntactic factor (i.e. complement construction) affects this strategy. The subjects involved were twenty-one Brocas, twenty-one Wernikes, and fourteen normals. They listened to reversible sentences and were required to point to the correct pictures. The results showed the following: First, in the Word Order Comprehension strategy, the semantic relations in deep structure were given to noun phrases according to the order of words in surface strucure. In addition, some of subjects with aphasia found word order from an auditory cue of particles and applied this strategy only to standard word order sentences. Second, in the Particle Comprehension strategy, decoding of syntactic structures occured. Additionally, sentences with complement constructions were more difficult to comprehend than those without complement constructions Incidentally, there was no qualitative difference between Brocas and Wernikes using the same trategies. However, Brocas scored better than Wernikes in the sentence comprehension tasks.