The effects of articulation difficulty and familiarity on mora-monitoring for compound Kanji words were analyzed for adult speakers who stutter (AWS) and do not stutter (AWDS). AWS and AWDS both rated as hard to articulate words with low familiarity and words containing homorganic clusters of palatalized syllables with a narrow vowel nucleus. Articulation difficulty for some words with high familiarity was rated significantly harder by AWS than by AWDS. For words rated harder to articulate, the monitoring accuracy was lower and response speed was slower for both speaker groups, particularly for AWS. These findings suggest that for words AWS consider harder to articulate, mora-manipulation becomes slower and less accurate, which may trigger stuttering.
The aim of this study was to examine whether the validity of rating hypernasality in the speech of children with cleft palate or CVPI can be improved by combining one-third-octave spectral analysis with perceptual judgment. Three experienced listeners rated the severity of hypernasality of the speech samples of /i:/ uttered by 14 children with repaired cleft palate, SMCP, and CVPI using a 4-point equal-appearing interval scale. One-third-octave spectra of the same speech samples were obtained using the CATCH system (Coretex, Tokyo), and quantitative nasality values were calculated from the level of 1/3 octave spectra. The quantitative nasality values in 10 of 14 samples (71%) accorded with perceptual judgment. Although disagreement between perceptual ratings and nasality values was found in the other 4 samples, the nasality values were more appropriate according to image views of VP function at the time of /i:/ utterance. While the possibility exists that factors of some kind that influence perceptual judgment were included in the sound of the disagreement examples, the effect of hoarse voice was not clear this time. These findings suggest the possibility that validity may improve by using nasality values from one-third-octave analysis in combination with perceptual judgment.
Shimamori & Ito (2007) suggested that a transition between syllables was thought to be more difficult than one within the same syllable in word production in Japanese children who stutter. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the same effect would be found in young Japanese children aged 4 to 6. In order to know the effect of the difference between transitions between syllables and those within syllables, we compared the reaction times for CV-CV (consonant-vowel and consonant-vowel) and CVN (consonant-vowel coupled with a nasal coda) nonwords. No significant difference was observed between the CV-CV and CVN nonwords. This finding suggests that in contrast to children who stutter, the difference between transitions between syllables and those within syllables does not affect word production in young Japanese children.
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the incidence of hoarseness in school teachers. We examined the prevalence of this symptom and various factors: professional position, workplace, age, gender, grade level taught, number of teaching lessons per week and courses taught. Responses were elicited by questionnaire from public school teachers who underwent thorough medical examinations at a hospital directly operated by the Japan Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, and these were analyzed to detect any associations between the prevalence of hoarseness and the various factors. The results were as follows. 1) Factors showing a high ratio to prevalence of the symptom included being female, serving as an ordinary teacher, teaching more than 21 lessons per week, working in an elementary school, and teaching Japanese language or music. 2) The number of teaching lessons per week by ordinary teachers is much more than for teachers in administrative positions, and the more teaching hours, the higher was the prevalence of the symptom. 3) The number of teaching lessons for ordinary elementary school teachers was higher than for junior or high school teachers. 4) Among elementary school teachers, the younger the grade level taught or the more the number of teaching lessons, the higher was the prevalence. 5) Notably, female elementary school teachers in their fifties demonstrated the highest prevalence. 6) It was found that female elementary school teachers in their fifties tended to be in charge of lower grades. From the above, several factors associated with the occurrence of hoarseness in school teachers were revealed, thus raising the possibility that careful attention to these factors may decrease the incidence of vocal disturbance in school teachers.
The purpose of this study was to clarify issues arising from the direct application of a model using adult cognitive neuropsychology to children with developmental dyslexia. The participants were seven children with developmental dyslexia. One child, who showed no phonological disorder, manifested symptoms suggestive of phonological dyslexia in reading Hiragana and Katakana. Meanwhile, developmental dyslexic children with phonological disorders showed symptoms resembling surface dyslexia based on the criterion of the discrepancy between the correct percentage of nonwords and irregular words read. The findings suggest that a number of contradictions may arise if we apply adult cognitive neuropsychology to developmental dyslexia directly. We also noted that some points in this report need further investigation in the near future: significantly more cases, well-controlled stimuli, use of reading age (RA), etc.