In this paper, we examined the degrees of contribution from reading aloud capability and auditory comprehension on the reading comprehension of Kanji words in 28 non-reading deficit children and 8 developmental dyslexic children. All the children were in fifth or sixth grade. In the non-reading deficit group, auditory comprehension significantly contributed to reading comprehension, and capability at reading aloud was also significant. At the same time, reading comprehension had an effect on both reading aloud and auditory comprehension. On the other hand, in the developmental dyslexic children, reading aloud capability significantly contributed to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension also had an effect on reading aloud. These results show that there is a robust relationship between reading aloud capability, auditory comprehension and reading comprehension, and that developmental dyslexic children cannot apply their ability in auditory comprehension to reading comprehension because of their difficulties in reading aloud. In addition, in non-reading deficit children, imageability was statistically extracted as a significant explanatory variable for all three abilities of reading comprehension, reading aloud and auditory comprehension. These findings suggest that the ease of imagining meaning affects capabilities in reading comprehension, reading aloud and auditory comprehension.
Purpose: Paragraph reading time (PRT) is defined as the elapsed time required to read a paragraph in a natural vocalization. We assumed that PRT can be of benefit for vocal assessments and studied whether it is clinically available or not. Method: 1) Assessment of reproducibility of PRT: In 192 normal voice cases, PRTs were compared as measured one week after the first trial and measured one year later. This study was performed to confirm reproducibility of PRT in the same person. 2) Comparison between PRT and maximum phonation time (MPT) in recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RNP) patients: In 52 RNP patients who were cured naturally within three months, PRTs were compared to MPTs. In 15 RNP patients who were not cured naturally and underwent autologous transplantation of fascia into the vocal fold, PRTs measured before and after operation were compared to MPTs. Results: 1) There was a high degree of reproducibility of PRTs in normal voice cases, in both PRTs measured one week later and those measured one year later. 2) A series of PRTs in RNP patients showed similar results to that of MPTs. Conclusion: PRT can be beneficial for vocal assessments.
In this study, we investigated information processing relating to hangul word reading in normal and poor readers. We tested the ability to read, size of vocabulary, and basic cognitive abilities, including visual processing and phonological processing, of 108 Korean children in third grade. In Korean normal readers, vocabulary, phoneme awareness and naming speed serve as factors for predicting reading scores. The result that vocabulary is the first predictor is as well as that Uno et al. (2009) reported for Kanji in Japanese, however, unlike many studies in Japan, where the focus is on mora awareness, we found evidence that with hangul phoneme awareness is more important than mora awareness. These findings were supported by the properties of Korean script. We found that compared to good readers of Korean, poor readers made more mistakes on a phoneme awareness task, and they requested more time on a RAN test. We suggest that phonological and automatization deficits underlie reading impairment in Korean.
In this study, we investigated the points in common and differences between developmental dyslexia and acquired alexia with agraphia in terms of timing of localization of the functions of reading/writing in the brain, using neuropsychological assessments and functional MRI. The participants were several children with developmental dyslexia who had abnormal activation area in the left temporo-parietal junction and two children with acquired alexia and agraphia who had left brain damage including inferior parietal lobule at the age of eight. The results suggested that reading/writing functions are localized in the left inferior parietal lobule before the age of eight. The findings also suggested that the functions of reading/writing develop independently from manipulation of non-verbal figures before eight years of age.
Communication deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are not uniform, as seen in poor comprehension of complex sentences and metaphors combined with good vocabulary, spelling and phonological ability. It is also known that ASD patients have difficulty in use of language such that they do not speak to others though they speak to themselves or that they cannot follow conversational rules. Underconnectivity theory, which has high affinity with central coherence theory, and social brain disorder theory suggest that the deficits come from differences in brain functions. Comprehensive neuropsychological examination will be useful to understand cognitive characteristics of ASD individuals, and an effective speech and communication therapy requires coping with the cognitive characteristics.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that aims to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognitions through a systematic procedure. CBT is based on the idea that distorted thoughts cause distressed feelings and behaviors, and the purpose is to straighten out the distorted thoughts in order to change distressed feelings and behaviors to be positive. CBT was first introduced in the area of stuttering therapy in the early 1970s but became popular in the mid-1990s, when multifactorial models of stuttering were developed. Mostly, CBT is used for individuals who have negative thoughts, emotions, attitudes and/or behaviors toward stuttering. The theory is particularly well developed in the case of depression, where individuals frequently experience unduly negative thoughts which arise automatically even in response to stimuli which might otherwise be experienced as positive. However, like stuttering, distorted emotions, behaviors and cognitions toward stuttering are learned behaviors from stuttering core behaviors. Therefore, CBT may not be applicable to the type of therapies that only aim to reduce or eliminate stuttering core behaviors. In the future, it will be critical to conduct systematic research to investigate the efficacy of CBT for people who stutter, specifically the relationship between change of the distorted thoughts and core and/or secondary behaviors of stuttering.