The Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES; Yaruss and Quesal, 2006) was designed based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model developed by the WHO. The OASES consists of four sections that together provide for a comprehensive assessment of the overall stuttering experience from the perspectives of individuals who stutter. The OASES was translated to Japanese (OASES-J) and administered in 30 adults who stutter who also participated in stuttering self-help groups. The results indicated that most of the participants showed a 'moderate to severe' impact rating in the Reactions to Stuttering section. In addition, most of the participants showed a 'mild to moderate' impact rating in the Communication in Daily Situations and the Quality of Life sections. Concerning the OASES-J itself, the results suggested that certain issues remain to be solved from the clinical standpoint, such as the time required for responding to 100 questions and difficulties in understanding some of the questions. However, results also showed that while there were differences in the average scores between sections, there were also high correlations between sections. These findings were consistent with previous results overseas, indicating that the OASES-J can be an internationally-standardized useful tool for assessing individuals who stutter.
In this study the author investigated early language development in a 6-year-old boy with general learning difficulties, using the dynamic systems approach. Trajectories of dynamic variables were observed of the types McCune (2008) indicated in a child longitudinally for 16 months. The results here revealed that the child's prelinguistic communicative behaviors and gestures, e.g. communicative grunting, showing, and pointing to objects in close distance, showed two increasing periods in frequency. These periods were thought to be an attractive state and a stable state (stability) within the dynamic systems. A control parameter was the variable of mental representations for the child. As self-pretense in his symbolic play and indication of manipulations with a wide array of miniature toys in our playroom emerged, he began to articulate /m//n/ sounds. His first meaningful words emerged at the age of 7 years and 4 months. These findings suggested synergy between interaction of mental representation and emergence of consonant sounds. Output of the control parameter was based on the attractive state and its stability.
Video self-modeling (VSM) is a behavioral treatment during which people view video images of themselves free of their problem target behavior. Because VSM is a new behavioral treatment implemented in adults who stutter (AWS) in Japan, this paper summarized the overall impressions and perspectives of VSM intervention for a group of 15 AWS. Prior to the treatment program, participants were video-recorded while speaking with a speech pathologist on the following tasks: reading a passage aloud, having 3 phone conversations (with script), and free conversation (topics: hobby, weather, travel, etc.), in order to generate a 5-minute video. All participants then watched an edited, stutter-free version of their 5-minute video (DVD) at home once per day, 5 days a week, for one month. They were asked to record their overall impression each time they watched their own DVD. After 1 month of treatment, they were interviewed on their views of the treatment program. Findings demonstrated that VSM intervention is easy for AWS to accept given that the commitment time is reasonable and it also provides an opportunity for AWS to recognize that they have the ability to produce fluent speech.
Objectives: Children with cochlear implants (CI) tend to exhibit communication breakdowns more often than normal hearing children during oral conversation. This study was aimed at learning whether use of communication strategies would correlate to the individual language abilities of CI children, so that the findings could be applied to rehabilitation programs. Methods: Eleven CI children aged from five to eleven years old participated in this study. Each child was requested to carry on a conversation face to face with a clinician for fifteen minutes; the same topics were used with all children. The numbers of communication breakdowns were counted, as well as use of repair strategies categorized into "repetition type," "request type" and "confirmation type." These items were then examined as to their relationships to receptive vocabulary, speech recognition score, expressive syntax, word association, and types using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Significant correlations were found between total use of repair strategies and speech recognition scores (r=0.667, p<0.05), product syntax (r=0.807, p<0.05) and word association (r=0.800, p<0.05). There was a high correlation between use of repetition strategy and confirmation strategy (r=0.686, p<0.05). Discussion: We conjecture that word association is involved in guessing the conversation partner's meaning during request or confirmation, and that syntax production is involved in conveying said meaning and content. Therefore, there is a need to provide training that promotes word association and syntax production. As repetition strategy was thought to precede confirmation strategy, the study indicated that training is needed that takes into consideration the repair strategy order.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the cognitive abilities underlying reading in Chinese. In this study, tests of phonological awareness, visual cognition, automatization and vocabulary were administered to 103 third-grade elementary school children in Taiwan. Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan learn "Zhu-Yin Fu-Hao" before learning Chinese characters. "Zhu-Yin Fu-Hao" is a combined phonological script involving phonemes and syllables. The phonological awareness tests we conducted therefore included phoneme awareness and syllable awareness. According to multiple regression analysis, visual cognition showed a significant unique contribution to Chinese character reading. It is likely that character-to-sound conversion and semantics are more strongly reflected in the configuration of Chinese characters. The visual cognition skills, including the abilities to recognize and discriminate unfamiliar figures, are closely related to learning Chinese characters. However, the influence of phonological awareness was not significant. The authors presume that when children read Chinese, the functional units of phonological representation in Chinese are onsets and rimes, instead of phonemes or syllables.
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