This study compared self-evaluations of monosyllables pronounced by hearing-impaired persons and articulation intelligibility of monosyllable pronunciation in a total of 22 hearing-impaired students aged 18 to 24, 11 of whom attended a special needs education school for the deaf and 11 of whom attended general schools. The results clarified the following points. (1) Articulation intelligibility of monosyllable pronunciation ranged widely from 10% to 95%. (2) Self-assessment also had significant individual differences, ranging from 32% to 96%, with some students having confidence that almost all syllables were accurately communicated. (3) Many students had greater confidence in their ability to communicate syllables than their actual articulation intelligibility of monosyllable pronunciation. (4) There was no difference between the special needs education school for the deaf group and the general school group in articulation intelligibility of monosyllable pronunciation and self-assessment. Ordinary conversations are verbalization via continuous vocalization, leaving little room for monosyllabic utterances. Also, surrounding people have become used to the way in which hearing-impaired people make utterances. We inferred that a high self-assessment was achieved for these reasons.
We reported a patient who showed symptoms of Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) and severe dysarthria after head injury. A 65-year-old right-handed man underwent conservative treatment for acute right subdural hematoma and left cerebral contusion. At initial examination, he had articulation difficulties and could not make facial movements as instructed, such as protruding the tongue and inflating the cheeks. However, his language comprehension was preserved, and he could understand verbal instructions and could write sentences that involved both kana and kanji. With treatment, his articulation gradually improved. His speech was characterized by nasality, roughness, and breathiness. Videofluoroscopic examination showed good mobility of the vocal cords without laterality. In this case, although FCMS-induced dysarthria presented similar to spastic dysarthria, it did not appear to be due to abnormal tone of the muscles controlling the vocal cords. Furthermore, this case provides evidence for the existence of cases where the speech disorder improved even in the presence of severe dysphagia and dysarthria.
A group interview analysis on fathers and mothers with stuttering children was conducted to investigate their awareness of stuttering symptoms of their child and feelings toward child rearing, how they receive attitudes and behaviors of the spouse, as well as the influence of intervention by professionals and participation in a parents' group. The mothers tended to be affected by information pointing out problems in child rearing and demonstrated increased feelings of guilt and anxiety toward the future. The fathers typically shared feelings of regret and guilt for not having supported their spouse. The mothers who felt that they were supported by their spouse had lower sense of isolation in child rearing. They easily judged from the contents of advice they received whether the person giving the advice was specialized in stuttering, and if so, this led to trust. Participation in a parents' group in some instances compelled those who were expecting spontaneous healing to confront information difficult for them to accept. However, they eventually came to take the information as meaningful and were able to discover joy in helping others by sharing their own experiences. This sharing also had the effect of affirming their child rearing in the past. Furthermore, through their child's experience they recognized significance in social enlightenment on stuttering.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of speech disfluencies in a Japanese child with specific language impairment (SLI), with a focus on verbs and arguments/adjuncts. The participant was a female school-aged child diagnosed with typical SLI. We analyzed only the sentences whose predicates were verbs. Speech disfluencies in her spontaneous speech recorded weekly from ages 12:8 to 12:10 were compared to those of 20 typically developing children aged 3-4. The results were as follows: 1) The rate of disfluent sentences was significantly higher in the child with SLI than in the younger children, although the rate of revisions was high in both the child with SLI and the younger children; 2) The rate of sentences with revisions of verbs tended to be higher in the child with SLI than in the younger children; and 3) The rate of revised sentences where arguments or adjuncts were added to the original sentences was significantly higher in the child with SLI than in the younger children. These results were discussed in relation to processing of sentence production and linguistic knowledge. We also discussed the clinical significance of the findings in this study．
Voice therapy is used as a treatment for vocal nodules, offering vocal hygiene and voice training to correct inappropriate voice production. The purposes of the present study were to assess vocal function after voice therapy for vocal nodules and to examine the association between the changes in nodal lesions and vocal function.
The participants were 28 patients diagnosed with vocal cord nodules: 2 males and 26 females with a mean age of 39 years. Laryngeal endoscopic evaluation of changes in nodal lesions, aerodynamic analysis (MPT, MFR), voice pitch assessment (F0, lowest/highest pitch, vocal range), acoustic analysis (PPQ, APQ, NHR), GRBAS scale (G, R, B) and VHI-10 were conducted. The results showed that nodal lesions disappeared in 12 of the 28 cases (43%). In addition, F0, highest pitch, vocal range, PPQ, APQ, NHR, G, R, B and VHI-10 significantly improved after voice therapy.
Factors associated with changes in nodal lesions included the duration of disease and the highest pitch before voice therapy.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of attributes of single kanji characters, such as number of strokes, imageability, number of neighbors, and reading and writing frequency, on the spelling performance of children and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. As we were unable to find appropriate values for writing frequency for children in Japan, in experiment 1 we investigated how often children write each kanji character using a questionnaire given to elementary school teachers.
Results of a binomial logistic regression analysis indicated that for the kanji characters learned by 2nd grade children, spelling performance is significantly better when the kanji are characterized by fewer strokes, higher writing and reading frequency, or higher imageability. In the same way, among kanji characters learned by 3rd grade children, those with fewer strokes, fewer neighbors, high imageability, or high reading frequency were also spelled significantly better.
The author studied the relationship between cognition through interaction with objects and language development in preschool children with intellectual developmental disorders. Thirteen children (6 girls) with intellectual developmental disorders of various severity participated in this study.
Methodology consisted of presenting the children with toys during individual play with the author and observing how they interacted with them. Language development was examined using the Japanese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI). Observation of the children's interactions with objects revealed combinations of visual exploration, manipulation, relational-nonfunctional, functional-conventional and symbolic actions, categorization and object substitution. Concerning the relationship between the children's actions and expressive words, object substitution developed in parallel with an increase in expressive words according to the CDI. These results indicated that children's procedures for interacting with objects changed, which suggested changes in their cognitive development. It is thought that the children's interactions with objects reflected a process involving strategizing, planning, thinking, and imagination. The results of this study also suggest that abstraction of interactions with objects may be related to children's language development regardless of whether or not the children are diagnosed as having an autism spectrum disorder.
In the evaluation of stuttering, it is necessary to grasp in detail the invention and avoidance used by stutterers and confirm their fear of given situations. However, in evaluations based on the Japanese Standardized Test for Stuttering (Second Edition) and the breakdown of stuttering developmental phases, no specific methods are described for confirming the stutterer's invention/avoidance, which is a symptom difficult to grasp by observation only. Additionally, in the Standardized Test for Stuttering (Second Edition) and the breakdown of stuttering developmental phases, no items are given for evaluating the stutterer's state of fear toward various situations in daily life. In our study, we presented a stuttering questionnaire to a case whose invention/avoidance could not be confirmed in free conversation and whose state of fear in various daily life scenes could not be evaluated using the Standardized Test for Stuttering (Second Edition) and stuttering developmental phases. From the results, we were able to evaluate the invention/avoidance that this case used and fearful scenes in daily life. As improvement in stuttering was then observed, our case study indicates the importance of evaluating invention/avoidance and state of fear in daily life using a stuttering questionnaire.