The purpose of this study was to explore a scale to measure the competency of coaches at community sport clubs (CCCSC). The literature review and thought listing procedure (n=20) were conducted to generate items specifically related to coaches at community sport clubs. Data were collected from 12 community sport clubs. The conditions for selecting clubs were as follows: first, these clubs were nonprofit organizations, second, these clubs have provided above 20 sport activities, and third, people of all ages can become members. The total number of coaches was 269. The literature review and thought listing procedure provided a total of 274 items. In order to minimize the subjectivity of the category classification and establish content validity, triangulation was selected to refine and edit the items. This procedure resulted in the development of 43 competency items. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 7 factors consisting of 35 competency items: 1)manner education (5 items), 2)cooperative approach (8 items), 3)field management (7 items), 4)coaching skills (6 items), 5)communication with people outside the club (3 items), 6) communication with people inside the club (3 items), 7)safety management (3 items). Cronbach＇s alpha for the 7 factors ranged from 0.803 to 0.930. The model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. The indexes of model data fit were: χ2/df=2.622, CFI=.87, RMSEA=.078. Construct validity was made up of three components. These components were convergent validity (factor loadings, average variance extracted, construct reliability), discriminant validity and content validity. It was shown that this scale was reliable and valid to measure the CCCSC.
The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of the social capital formed by the managers of community sport clubs based on the comparison between specified nonprofit corporation clubs and voluntary organization clubs. In this study, the managers of eighteen community sport clubs in the Kinki region were selected as samples. Ten of these clubs were specified nonprofit corporations and eight of these clubs were voluntary organizations. Interviews were conducted using the items explored by Dudwick et al.(2006). These survey items were determined by the result of discussion by a research representative and two collaborators. A hierarchical cluster analysis using text mining was adopted to the data operated. There were two main results of this study. First, the characteristics of the social capital formed by the managers of community sport clubs having specific nonprofit corporation were to make much of the networks built among neighbor community sport clubs, local governments and community groups through their cooperation with each other. Second, the characteristics of the social capital formed by the managers of community sport clubs voluntarily organized were to make much of the networks built among inner groups through coordinating the use of school facilities. These findings suggested that the social capital formed by the managers of community sport clubs having specific nonprofit corporation tended to spread out outer clubs, while the social capital formed by the managers of community sport clubs voluntarily organized tended to close toward inner groups.
This practice report describes the spread of gymnastics lessons in special education schools in Jamaica from October 2011 to October 2013, and the efforts and challenges of participation or holding the Special Olympics Jamaica Annual National Summer Games. This initiative was carried out in cooperation with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Ministry of Education Jamaica, Jamaican Association of Intellectual Disabilities (JAID), Jamaica Amateur Gymnastics Association (JAGA), a local gymnastics school, and Special Olympics Jamaica (SO Jamaica). As part of the effort, approximately 520 students (grades 1–12) from four special education schools participated in gymnastics sessions. A special education gymnastics team participated in competitions, and several of the students were able to participate for the first time in the gymnastics department of the Special Olympics Jamaica 30th Annual National games in June 2013. Following this, in terms of keeping gymnastics education in Jamaica continuously, two challenges have emerged: a lack of resources for teaching gymnastics and the absence of human resources. To make gymnastics education run smoothly, financial and human assistance from developed countries is needed.