This is a short review of the ultrastructure observed in various types of conidial and other kinds of fungal spores as revealed by freeze-fracturing. We conclude that on the basis of ultrastructural difference the pathogenic Cladosporium species should be transferred to another genus.
mtDNAのRFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism)分析によりE. dermatitidis, E. jeanselmei (var. jeanselmei), E. jeanselmei var. heteromorpha, E. jeanselmei var. lecaniicorni, E. spinifera, F. pedrosoi, P. verrucosa, C. carrionii, H. werneckiiは明確に区別され同定が可能である事が示された.またE.dermatitidisが極めて均一な種である事,E.jeanselmei,E.spinifera,E.moniliaeが複合種である事が示唆され,F.pedrosoi,P.verrucosa,C.carrionii,H.werneckiiでは種内変異はあるものの遺伝的にまとまりのある単一種である事が明らかにされた.更にF.pedrosoiとF.compacta及びP.verrucosaとP.americanaがそれぞれ同一種である事が遺伝的に示され,F.pedrosoiは6,P.verrucosaは10,C.carrioniiは4,H.werneckiiは9のタイプに分けられた.前3種において各タイプは地域特異的な分布を示し,後の一種では地域特異性は見られない事よりH.werneckiiが他の3種とは異なる分布の広げ方をしている事が推測された.また系統的に遠い関係にある,即ち共通の祖先から早い時期に分かれたと推定されるタイプがいずれも南米において分離されている事から,これらの菌種が北米及びアジアに比べ,より古くから南米に存在していた事が推測された.
Until now, 10 cases of phaeohyphomycosis have been reported in China. Their causative agents were as follows: Exophiala dermatitidis (4 cases), E. spinifera (3), E. jeanselmei (1), Alternaria alternata (1) and Veronaea botryosa (1). The clinical data will be reviewed in this paper. The pathogenic dematiaceous fungi isolated from the phaeohyphomycosis patients were identified carefully and the conidiogenesis of these organisms was studied by using a scanning electron microscope. Besides of these, physiological and other studies were also carried out to aid the correct classification and identification. RAPD-PCR technique was applied to the genomic DNA assay of pathogenic ‘black yeasts’ and reveled highly polymorphisms in their genomic fingerprints. The ecological studies were carried out and seven species were isolated from the soil and rotting plant materials. Phialophora verrucosa was the most dominant species in nature in Shandong, China, followed by Exophiala spinifera and Veronaea botryosa. The pathogenicity of Veronaea botryosa and Exophiala spinifera were studied by using both normal and precompromised mice. The results show that both natural and clinical strains of V. botryosa have potential pathogenicity. E. spinifera is neurotropic and its pathogenicity is specially potential in immunodeficient hosts.
The levels of IgG antibodies specific for enolase, extracellular proteinase (EPR) and common antigens of Candida albicans, namely, the 67, 62, 29 and 25 kDa components in five children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were sequentially monitored by Western blot analysis. The total amounts of immunoglobulins in all sera of patients were below the normal range. Enolase-specific antibodies were detected in four of the five patients and in 38-57% of healthy children. EPR-specific antibody which was not detected in healthy children was shown only in one patient. In contrast, antibodies specific for the 67, 62, 29 and 25 kDa components were frequently detected in patients as well as in healthy children. In most cases in which specific antibodies were detected, the intensities of bands were sequentially decreased during chemotherapy, especially for the 29 and 25 kDa. Candida cells were recovered from four patients with enolase-specific antibodies. These preliminary results justify a large-scale study of quantitative tests of antibodies for enolase, EPR, and 29 and 25 kDa components of C. albicans to clarify their usefulness for monitoring candidal infection and immune status during chemotherapy in patients with ALL.