Two actinomycete strains that were isolated from patients in Japan were assigned provisionally to the genus Nocardia based on their morphological characteristics. The two isolates were further studied to determine their specific taxonomic status. Detailed chemotaxonomic characterization and 16S rDNA sequence data for the strains showed that they are most similar to Nocardia vinacea. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that strain IFM 0344 should be identified as N. vinacea, and that strain IFM 0323T is classifiable as a new species. This report describes the first isolation of N. vinacea from clinical samples. A new species of the genus Nocardia is proposed based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics: Nocardia anaemiae for IFM 0323T (=NBRC 100462T=JCM 12396T=DSM 44821T).
We examined the effect of a clove (Syzygium aromaticum) administered by two different routes on Candida albicans growth, using a murine oral candidiasis model. When the clove preparation was administered into the oral cavity of Candida-infected mice, their oral symptoms were improved and the number of viable Candida cells in the cavity was reduced. In contrast, when the clove preparation was administered intragastrically, oral symptoms were not improved, but viable cell numbers of Candida in the stomach and feces were decreased. These findings demonstrate that oral intake of an herbal food, clove, may suppress the overgrowth of C. albicans in the alimentary tract including the oral cavity.
We have developed degenerated primers for the isolation of several fungal species catalases, based on the known catalase genes of several yeast species. Using a combination of degenerated primers and the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we were able to obtain PCR products from Candida dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR products amplified showed that those fragments contained sequences homologous with the known Candida catalases, indicating the usefulness of the designed primers. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frames and respective 5' untranscribed regions of these yeasts and compared each sequence with that of the respective related species. The difference between the deduced amino acid sequence of catalase of C. dubliniensis and C. albicans was 5 in 485 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of C. glabrata catalase was identical to the sequence results from the genome sequence project which was recently released, whereas that of the catalase of the C. tropicalis clinical isolate was not the same as the strain Pk233, n-alkane-utilizing C. tropicalis. The catalase activities of all the strains tested so far were activated by short-term hydrogen peroxide treatment, suggesting that common mechanisms were involved in the induction of catalase activity, although the nucleotide sequences of the 5' untranscribed region of these yeasts were diversified.