We developed a calculation technique t o evaluate the biological dose distribution of heavy ion beams, and verified its reliability by comparison with experimental results. The calculation technique was developed by connecting two general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. In order to evaluate the radiation quality and biological effect, the microdosimetric kinetic model was adopted. We estimated the distribution of physical dose and radiation quality for the carbon broad beam with experiments and with Monte Carlo calculations. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was estimated from radiation quality, and biological dose could be calculated as the product of the physical dose and the RBE. Our calculations showed good agreement with experiments, not only for the physical dose, but also for the dose-averaged lineal energy as an expression of radiation quality and therefore biological dose. This finding indicates that our calculation tool will be useful to estimate biological dose distribution in the design of heavy ion radiation facilities or for quality assurance in treatment planning.
Particle radiotherapy using proton and h eavy ion beams has shown improved clinical results and is a promising cancer therapy which is expected to gradually spread in Japan. There are, however, no special regulations for radiotherapy treatment facilities. They have been operated under the same safety regulations as for a research facility using a research accelerator. Significantly high-energy radiation is necessary for particle radiother a py compared with conventional radiation therapy. The treatment facility, therefore, should have a large accelerator, which is installed in a room with a thick shield wall. Data on radiation protection for such high energy medical facilities is fragmentary and insufficient. In this study, we examined the necessity of other regulations for the safe operation of medical facilities for particle radiotherapy. First, we measured activation levels of the therapeutic devices and of patients. Next the safety level of the medical facility was evaluated from the viewpoint of radiation protection. We have confirmed the facilities can be safely operated by present regulations given in the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radiation Isotopes, etc. or the Law for Health Protection and Medical Care.