Electron mass collision stopping power is a fundamental physical quantity describing energy loss process in matter of ionizing radiation. With increasing of accuracy in dose estimation for radiation dosimetry, it is recommended that would be used restricted stopping power for Bragg-Gray cavity theory. However, there is not enough data of the restricted stopping power for the material which we often used as a phantom. To make the calculation of restricted mass collision stopping power for electrons, we carried out the correction for density effect using either Sternheimer and Peierls or Hiraoka et al correction method. Electron mass collision stopping power estimated for 9 tissue substitutes and air agrees within 0.3-0.5% compared with ICRU report 37.
I first give a short historical background of heavy ion research. Nucleus-Nucleus reactions at intermediate, relativistic and ultrarelativistic energies are then discussed and target and projectile fragmentation processes are described. A short summary of existing semiempirical total and partial cross section formulas is given. These formulas are compared with these developed by Sihver et al. The agreement between the calculated cross sections by Sihver et al. and the experimental data is much better than all earlier published results.
Purpose, significance and potentialities of medical physics teaching for medical students are discussed. General physics and experimental physics courses are obligatory subjects in most Japanese medical schools. The elementaries of quantum mechanics and practical electronics are usually included in the subjects. In many medical schools, the rudiments of radiation physics are lectured as a part of the radiology. However, few medical schools have Departments of Medical Physics. Medical physics has rarely been included in the curriculum for medical students. In 1991, "The Official Requirements for the Inaug u ration of a College" has been fully revised for the purpose of generalization since it was issued in 1956. The revision was undertaken in accordance with the report submitted, in 1987, by "The Ad Hoc Committee on Education" to the Prime Minister. The new requirements provide broad policies for the curriculum of general education in an attempt to initiate the reformation of the college education. Under the new provision, universities and colleges are free to set up their curriculums from their own standpoints. The significance of the reformation is reviewed. Potentialities of modification from Physics to Medical Physics Departments and the purpose of medical physics education to medical studets in the reformation are also discussed.
Patterns of Care Study (PCS) in Radiation Oncology began in 1972 in the United States funded by National Cancer Institute. The study included several kinds of national surveys of radiotherapy practice. At first a facility survey was conducted to allow the identification of specific radiation therapy equipment, simulator, personnel resources and so on in every department in the United States. By this survey a facility master list was developed and has been used for sample identification of national benchmark studies in process and outcome for key diseases in which radiation oncology played a prominent role. Another important step was to determine the national consensus of best current management for these diseases. These guidelines were used o measure the national compliance of process of care. These continuous activities of PCS not only revealed the patterns of radiotherapy care and also improved their average in the United States. PCS also played major role in developing quality assurance in radiation oncology. In this paper the author introduced this study and made some disscussion about its contribution to quality assurance in radiation oncology in the United States. PCS is to be an exellent model of quality assurance activity in radiotherapy in Japan.