The purposes of the present study were to investigate physical fitness in the elderly, to examine availability of carrying out physical fitness test in periodical health examination based on the "Law of health and welfare for the elderly (LHWE)", and to select appropriate physical fitness tests at the health examination. The subjects were 831participants in the health examination according to LHWE, aged more than 60 years. Their physical fitness based on the concept of health-related physical fitness was measured after the health examination at the 42 public halls: relative body fat, grip strength, knee extension strength, sit-and-reach, maximal oxygen uptake, sway of center gravity with eyes opened and closed, and stepping. Results of statistical analyses indicated that balance ability dropped most with aging; muscular strength correlated to age higher than the others; knee extension strength declined faster than grip strength; and muscular strength of female decreased more than that of male. Taking recent findings into consideration, we recommend relative fat, grip strength, sit-and-reach, and one-foot standing with eyes opened as physical fitness tests in the health examination according to LHWE. However, it is essential for us to develop new practical tests on agility and cardiorespiratory endurance.