Although expectations for foster care have recently increased, most foster parents experience the serious problem of stressful situations. Previous research in Japan has focused on foster parents' perceptions in coping with crises. The present study continues that line of inquiry through interviews but crucially alters it by focusing on the influence of intra- and extra-familial social relationships. This study contributes two findings. First, the foster parents overcame crises by sharing hardships with the cooperation and understanding of family members, and by relativizing difficulties through information from similar foster parent experiences and expert knowledge. Second, the role identity of foster parents was strengthened through the process of crisis coping by obtaining positive evaluations from foster children and officials at child consultation centers. These results suggest that instrumental, emotional, and informational support from social relationships inside and outside the family ease the negative influence of stressors and that appraisal support from care recipients and public third persons always stabilizes the psychological state of foster parents.
Special Issue: Lesbian, Gay, Transgender and “Family”
Through a review of the extant literature on parent–adult child relationships, this paper showed how heterosexuality was generally assumed in studies of mother–daughter relationships and raised questions about the dynamics of such relationships when the daughter refuses to or cannot live up to heterosexual ideals. Taking as illustrations data from previous qualitative research on same-sex relationships, the authors showed that (1) heteronormativity is both enforced and challenged in the relationship between heterosexual mothers and lesbian daughters, (2) distancing and intimacy are not mutually exclusive, (3) disclosure is complex, (4) gender could facilitate intimacy without necessarily reinforcing heterosexual norms, and (5) the woman partner has a significant role to play in the relationship. In the conclusion, the authors argued that the focus on lesbian daughters and heterosexual mothers has larger implications for a queer analysis of family dynamics.
The purpose of this article is to analyze money management and partnerships among gay couples on the basis of interview research and to examine (1) the characteristics of money management among gay couples in comparison with lesbian couples, (2) relationships between patterns of money management and equal partnerships, and (3) the impact of discrimination against gay men and lesbians on money management and family life among gay couples. The analysis shows that (1) an independent management system is a typical pattern of money management among gay couples, while a shared management system is one of the typical patterns among lesbian couples, (2) independence of money management does not necessarily guarantee equal partnerships, and (3) discrimination against gay men and lesbians is one of the factors that cause individualized life among gay couples.
In this paper, I pointed out that people had come to refer to “understanding by others” as a criterion for “gender identity disorder” against a background in which the experiences of people with gender dysphoria had become diverse. I also considered what experience “gender identity disorder” as a concept would bring to the child with gender dysphoria and the parent when it came to imply an “understanding by others.” I analyzed the process of the appearance of the diagnostic criterion of “understanding by others” using qualitative research with young people who were born from the late 1980s to the early 1990s. Then, introducing two cases of those who sought a diagnosis of gender identity disorder, I showed that not only patients but also doctors attached importance to “understanding by the parent” as a criterion. Moreover, I discussed the impact on the experiences of the child and the parent brought about by the concept to request an attempt to adjust their relationship.