The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanism of the formation of family-oriented attitudes by analyzing the mother–daughter relationship, because such attitudes may have a great impact on women’s life-course decisions. We sought to achieve our purpose by applying the interdependence model to dyadic data from female junior high school students and their mothers in metropolitan areas. The main findings are as follows: (1) The explanation of the family socialization process whereby the mother’s job status affects daughter’s family-oriented attitude regardless of the mother’s expectation was not supported. (2) The number of siblings and the mother being self-employed weaken the association between mothers’ and daughters’ attitudes. We suggested a new framework for explaining gender-role reproduction in which we place particular emphasis on family socialization. For future research on family socialization, it is necessary to distinguish the effects of variables on parents’ and children’s attitudes and the effects on interdependency between their attitudes.