A number of transplantable animal models of osteosarcoma have been developed so far, but the available strains of the rat that keep their bone-forming ability through many serial transplantations are limited both in the number of strains and their applicability. In the present examination, the establishment of appropriate rat models for human osteosarcoma is attempted. Four kinds (A3, C5, D16, E3) of F344 rat osteosarcomas of bone-forming types induced with 4-NQO and 32P were transplanted into the medullary cavity of the tibia, the thigh muscle and the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of the hack of the same species for many generations, respectively. Three kinds (A3, D16, E3) of them could be serially transplanted in the subcutaneous tissue, with 100% success rate over 60, 45, and 30 passage generations, respectively. Histologically, during serial transplantation, tumor A3 gradually decreased in bone forming activity and became chondroblastic after the 40th generation. Tumor D16 also gradually decreased in bone formation and became fibroblastic after the 45th generation. However, tumor E3 continued to possess bone forming activity after 30 generations. Because of these three strains of osteosarcoma having different characteristics in transplantability and histology, it is thought to be of great value in the investigating osteosarcoma of human being and bone metabolism.
Eighty one patients with 82 odontomas were treated at the First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, during an 18 year period from 1972 to 1989 and were reviewed clinically and histopathologically. 1. According to the histologic type, 52 cases (64. 2%) were classified as compound odontoma, 24 cases (29. 6%) were complex type and 5 cases (26. 2%) were mixed with compound and complex types. 2. There were 39 males (48. 1%) and 42 females (51. 9%). As for the ages, 30 cases (37. 0%) were 10 to 19 years old, 21 cases (25. 9%) 20 to 29 and the mean age was 24. 1 years. 3. As for the chief complaints, 33 cases (42. 3%) had X-ray visual odontomas but they have no symptom, 17 cases (21. 8%) had inflamation (swelling or pain) and 12 cases (15. 4%) had no eruption of the teeth. 4. Eighteen cases (33. 9%) with compound odontoma were found in the frontal region of the maxilla and 17 cases (32. 1%) in the frontal region of the mandible. Nine cases (37. 5%) with complex odontoma were found in the molar region of the mandible. 5. As for the size of the lesion, 85. 5% were between 11 mm and 30 mm. 6. Sixty-eight percent of the patients with odontoma had impacted teeth. As for the relation between the tumor and impacted teeth, 12 cases (15. 2%) had impacted teeth in the tumor, 29 (36. 7%) had impacted teeth in contact with the tumor and 13 (16. 5%) had impacted teeth apart from the tumor. 7. Seventy four cases had no recurrence between 2 and 19 years after the enucleation of odontomas.
Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) populations using the OK or Leu series of monoclonal antibodies is commonly conducted to investigate the immunological status of patients such as autoimmune disease, immunodeficiency syndrome, or malignant tumor. We have recently encountered two eases of osteosarcoma with deficiency of T4 epitope on helper/inducer T lymphocytes. In case 1 with osteosarcoma of the maxilla, absence of T4 epitope in PBL was observed not only in the patient, but also in this patient's father and brother. However, lack of T4 epitope in PBL in case 2, who harbored osteosarcoma of the mandible, was limited to the patient. Another epitope present on the helper/inducer T cells, as defined by Leu 3a antigen, was identified in 2 osteosarcoma patients and their families. Therefore, it can be considered that the lack of T4 epitope in case 1 is due to a genetic aberration with the autosomal dominant trait, and that this is due to the loss of the epitope recognized by T4 antibody and not to a lack of the helper/inducer T lymphocytes. It is known that the genes coding for helper/inducer T cell antigen and K-ras oncogene are located on chromosome 12 pter-p 12 and 12 p12. 1, respectively. Thus, we examined the expression of ras oncogene product p 21 in PBL of osteosarcomas by immunofluorescent staining. Consequently, PBL reactive with anti-ras p 21 antibodies (Y 13-238 and Y 13-259) were clearly observed in case 2, whereas no staining was detected in case 1. These findings may imply that allelic loss of chromosome 12 pter-p 12 occurs in case 1, but not in case 2.
Establishment of human cultured cell line derived from metastatic lymph node of malignant melanoma originating in the hard palate is reported. It's cell line was named HM 162 and was nearly spindle shaped. The cells were melanotic in the early stage but became amelanotic in the late stage of the culture. But the cell produced melanin along with 0.1% of L-DOPA for several hours. HM 162 cells secreted a factor into the culture medium which stimulated their own growth. Such a factor may be contributed, to some extent to the high malignancy of malignant melanoma.
Cavernous hemangioma is common in the head and neck region, and pathologically cavernous hemangioma characterized by small feeding arteries and large blood pools. Angiography and computed tomography have not demonstrated the whole extension of these lesions. 9 patients with cavernous hemangioma were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in this study. MRI could clearly demonstrate cavernous hemangiomas with good contrast to normal tissues. Cavernous hemangiomas showed losv-iso signal intensity compared to the muscle on the Ti weighted image and isu-high signal intensity on T2. All cases did not show a flow void on the proton density image that is most sensitive to flow, and were enhanced by Gd-DTPA. Especially, T2 weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced images were useful to demonstrate these lesions. Intramuscular cavernous hemangiomas in the head and neck region were characterized by local muscle atrophy and septum formation.
Clinicostatistical investigation was made on about 53 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity who had undergone neck dissection at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Asahikawa NIcdical College from January 1979 to December 1988. Of the 71 cases of neck dissection, 50 were performed therapeutically, and 21 prophylactically. Metastases to the cervical lymph nodes were histologically confirmed in 33 patients. The majority of the involved nodes were submandibular lymph nodes, superior internal jugular nodes, and mid internal jugular nodes. The five-year-survival rate was 84.1% in patients without metastasis and 46.4% with metastasis. Prognosis was poorer as the number of metastatic nodes and sites increased. Prognosis was poorer as cervical nodes of lower level were involved. Of the 33 cases with cervical lymph node metastasis, eleven cases died of local failure, but only one case died of failure in the neck. This indicates that the prognosis of cases with cervical lymph node metastasis depends upon whether the primary disease is controlled or not.
Fourteen cases of surgically and histopathologically proven plunging ranulas were evaluated sonographically. Ultrasound scans were performed in all eases using commercially available mechanical are scanner and electronic scanner employing 7.5-MHz and 5-MHz transducers respectively in an immersion method. The results are summarized below. Boundary echoes were clear except for one case, and seven cases out of the fourteen showed irregular borders. The shape of the cysts were ovoid and oblong or a conglomeration composed of the two shapes. Cystic patterns were shown in eleven cascs and hypoechoic solid patterns were shown in the remaining three cases. Internal echoes that were linear in shape and suggested the existance of septa were demonstrated in seven cases of cystic patterns and two cases of solid patterns. Enhancement of posterior echoes were observed in five cases and the degree of echogenicity varied in each case. By using ultrasound imaging, the lesion and adjacent structures could be studied and their relationship better understood, which was valuable in the preoperative diagnosis.
Ameloblastoma is one of the most common odontogenic tumors in the oral region. It appears as bone resorption in the mandible frequently but rarely in the maxilla. The authors experienced four cases of ameloblastoma which appeared in the maxilla. Four patients ranged from 25 to 83 years old. 2 cases occurred in males and 2 cases in females. At the first visit, recurrence occurred in 2 cases. In radiological observations, 2 cases were of monocystic type, 1 case polycystic type, and 1 case honeycomb type. In pathological observations, 2 cases were of follicular type, 1 case acanthomatous type, and 1 case plexiform type. They were treated by extirpation and no recurrence occurred during follow up. Only 59 cases in the maxilla have been reported in our country in the past 60 years. In this study we examine 63 cases including our four cases. The results are summarized as follows: The patients ranged from 5 to 85 years old, and the mean age was 47.0. There was no significant differences by sex. In the pathological classification, follicular type occupied 41.9%, acanthomatous type 32.3%, plexiform type 9.7%, and basal cell type 9.7%, etc. Recurrence rate was 26.9%.
Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is an organ specific autoimmune disease in which exocrine glands, mainly salivary and lacrimal glands, become heavily infiltrated with lymphocytes leading to decreased production of saliva and tears, i.e. sicca complex. However, its etiology remained to be determined. We have been doing SS patients clinical and pathological research and searching for the correlation between these two factors. And we realized that it is important to retrieve lymphocyte subsets which are infiltrating in the salivary gland. In this study, monoclonal antibodies which recognize lymphoid-associated antigens on paraffin sections were used for retrospective study. We studied 101 cases of SS (6 male cases, 95 female cases). 87 patients had “definite” and 14 had “probable” SS according to the criteria by the SS committee of the ministry of health and welfare. The distribution of the degree of lymphocytic infiltration which was evaluated according to the Ishikawa and Komori classification was as follows;(-): 5, (±): 26, (+): 34, (++): 22, (+++): 14. Paraffin sections of minor salivary glands were stained with UCHL 1, LN-1, LN-2, LN-3, and L 26 by the ABC technique. A relationship between the degree of lymphocytic infiltration according to the Ishikawa and Komori classification and T cell/B cell ratio was detected. The more extensive lymphocytic infiltration became, the higher the percentage of occupied B cells. There was also a relationship between the number of lymphocytes infiltrating and the T cell/B cell ratio, In small foci of the lesion, the infiltrating lymphocytes were mainly T cells. As the foci became larger, the percentage of B cell became higher. In 5 cases germinal center was detected in foci. In these foci, the high percentage of B cells were seen, especially LN-1 positive B cells gathered and formed the germinal center. Compaired with those who did not have LN-1 positive B cells, rheumatoid factor was detected more frequently in the patients who had LN-1 positive B cells. The infiltrated LN-1 positive B cells seemed to play an important role in producing the rheumatoid factor. These data showed that T cells infiltrate first in the salivary glands, and B cells appear and get activated as the focus gets larger. Thus, T cells are likely to play an important role in the initiation of SS and B cells play in the further process of SS.
A case of acinic cell tumor of accessory parotid gland associated with “crystalloid” is presented. The patient was a 69-year-old female who was aware of a small mass of right buccal mucosa for 12 years. She consulted our clinic complaining of repeated swelling of the right parotid region. Oral examination revealed a submucosal elastic hard nodule beneath the right papilla parotidea. The lesion exhibited scattered radiopacity on roentgenogram. Under the clinical diagnosis of infected sialolithiasis in Stensen's duct, curettage was performed intra-orally. After two weeks, the submucosal nodule remained unchanged, then the lesion was excised along with the papilla parotidea under local anesthesia. Stensen's duct involved with the capsulated spheroid tumor was sacrificed and the proximal stump of the duct was sutured to the buccal mucosa. The patient recovered well after surgery. The excised tumor was 15 mm in diameter, and histologically composed of eosinophilic cuboidal cells organizing tubular or acinar structure with poor fibrous stroma. Capsular structure with thin fibrous connective tissue was evident. Characteristic “crystalloid”, which is occasionally found confined in the parotid gland and the origin of which is not known, as well as psammorna body were scattered throughout tumor, and some of the crystalloids had cores consisting of psammoma body. But, there was no sialolith in the specimen. Histopathological diagnosis was acinic cell tumor. The origin of the tumor in tins case was speculated to be accessory parotid gland rather than buccal minor salivary gland upon consideration of findings such as the anatomical relationship between the tumor and Stensen's duct, and identified crystalloid in the tumor. This is the first case reporting the existence of crystalloid in acinic cell tumor.
Since first described by Philipsen, odontogenic keratocysts have been reported by a number of investigators. A clinical study was undertaken on 26 cases of odontogenic keratocyst seen during the past 11 years at our department. The pathological diagnosis was based on the criteria of Pindborg. The patients with odontogenic keratocyst amounted to 6.1% of the patients admitted in our department for treatment of cystic diseases. These consisted of 14 males and 12 females and ranged in age from 11 to 72 (mean 36 years old). The ratio of the incidence in the lower jaw to that in the upper jaw 6: 1. The mandibular wisdom tooth to mandibular ramus region was the predilection site. Basal cell nevus syndrome was found in 3 cases. The cysts were morphologically divided by X-ray into 3 types;(1) monocystic and smooth (n=25), (2) monocystic and scalloped (n=4), (3) polycystic (n=7), Twelve of them were accompanied by impacted tooth. On measuring the areas of the cysts using an orthopantomograph for determining their sizes, the areas ranged from 1.8 cm2 to 40.3 cm2 (mean 13 cm2). Histopathologically, almost all of the cysts were parakeratinized.