The present study investigated the ability of the elderly to discriminate colors. We focused on the visual characteristics of the elderly and investigated age-induced changes in color discrimination ability. We used the 100 hue test with a portable analyzer to determine ability to discriminate colors. All 100 hues were shown to 100 elderly subjects, and the results were analyzed with respect to age and eye disease. The study confirmed a significant correlation between total deviation score and age as well as between total deviation score and visual acuity, and revealed that the ability to discriminate all colors decreases with age. For all age groups, color discrimination ability was low for R, P hues and B, G hues, and high for Y, YR hues and P, B hues. These findings suggest that among the elderly, there are hues that are easier to discriminate and those that are relatively difficult to discriminate. Furthermore, among the various eye diseases present, there was a significant difference in the total deviation score between the elderly with cataracts and those without, thus suggesting that cataracts greatly affect color vision. This finding indicates that color vision is influenced by age-induced yellowing of the lens. The reduced ability to discriminate between colors in the elderly thus appears to be attributable to cataracts and yellowing of the lens.
This study measured and analyzed the amount of saliva and the taste threshold in response to lighting conditions (illuminance and color temperature) in different ethnic groups. Ten Japanese and ten Chinese healthy non-smoking male college students participated in the study. According to the results of repeated-measure ANOVA, the effect of illumination on the amount of saliva was significant in the Japanese students, and the Chinese students showed same tendencies regarding their saliva response, but not significant. On the other hand, the effect of illuminance on the taste threshold was considered significant in both these groups. Regarding the effect of color temperature, this study found significant changes in taste threshold only for Chinese. It is interesting to note that significant differences in the taste threshold regarding a salty taste were seen between the subject groups. The results of the present study indicated that the lighting condition could be considered an important parameter of taste sensation.
The purpose of this study was to determine the major circumstances of fall incidence in home-dwelling stroke patients. One hundred seventy home-dwelling stroke patients were recruited for this study. We administered 3 questionnaires to the participants. The questionnaire contained information about (1) fall incidence in the last twelve months, (2) personal characteristics, and (3) individual functional ability as measured by the Barthel index score. Eighty-nine of the patients (52.4%) suffered a fall. There were no significant differences between fallers and non-fallers in personal characteristics. Most falls occurred while walking on a flat floor (51.9%) or during a change of posture from sitting to standing on the floor (19.3%). Moreover, the rate of injury caused by falls in these two major activities was very high. In addition, there was a significant relationship between activities when falls occurred and causes of falls. Further studies that focus on the mechanisms leading to falls in these circumstances are needed to improve the major causes of falls in these activities.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of deflection of center of foot pressure (CFP) that occurs during a side of center of gravity from the reference, attributed to trunk deflection and muscle force of lower limb. In addition, posture control in the elderly will also be reviewed. The study included 17 healthy elderly subjects and 14 students, adding up to a total of 31 subjects. The subject positioned himself on the force plate and performed an abnormal movement that resulted in a maximum shift of the center of gravity toward the right of the force plate. When the working CFP, acromion, and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) moved anteriorly, the deflection (Y-SD) was measured along with the muscle force of lower limb (% body weight). A correlation was sought between each of the above parameters. The results indicated a significant negative correlation between CFP Y-SD and muscle force required for trunk deflection in the elderly group (r=-0.51, p<0.05). In addition, a significant positive correlation was recognized between each of CFP Y-SD, acromion Y-SD, and ASIS Y-SD in the young group (r=0.75, 0.69, p<0.01). Based on the results of the elderly group, it was considered that the muscle force of the tibialis posterior muscle which contributes to the drop of metatarsus and forefoot, and anteroposterior homeostasis contributed to the control of the CFP deflection in the elderly. Thus, it is considered that the factors controlling CFP deflection that occurs during a lateral shift of the center of gravity in the elderly are different from those in the young. The results also suggest different mechanism for maintenance of posture in the two groups.
The aim of this paper is to explain the trend type, and aging of the life information for the aged. The main results of this study are abstracts as follow. 1. Life information is classified in four kinds by demands. Those are constant demand, peak making, increase type, and decrease type. 2. There is not a difference of male and female in an information demand of 60-74 years old. 3. In an information demand of 75-84 years old, a female has health and a safe demand compared with a male. 4. As for the not less than male over 85 years old, a demand of health and security is higher than a female.
To investigate the effect of warm-up exercise on the kinetics of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and phosphocreatine (PCr) during exercise, six healthy males performed knee flexion exercise for 4 min at 60% of maximal work rate. The exercise was followed by warm-up exercise in the warming-up (W) trial, but not in the without warming-up (C) trial. The Pi and PCr in biceps femoris muscles were estimated by 31 phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (^<31>P-MRS). The decrease in PCr at steady state was similar in both trials, whereas Pi at the steady state was greater in the W trial than in the C trial. The time constant of PCr decrease was significantly less in the C trial than in the W trial (39±13 vs. 57±3s, p<0.05). These results suggested that warm-up exercise affects the phosphocreatine metabolism in active muscle.